Bioelectronics A fundamental
sub-discipline that embraces the study of electron and ion transport
phenomena, signaling and signal transduction, and the associated
molecular and organizational structures that control and influence
these in living systems. Bioelectronics may be studied at the whole
animal, organ, tissue, cellular, and sub-cellular levels. In the
context of the C3B, our emphasis is on molecular bioelectronics and
test, measurement, and monitoring devices that use bioactive indicator
molecules, organelles, cells and tissues as the recognition component
in conjunction with solid state physicochemical transducers. These are
analytical devices. Biosensors may be single-element or multi-element,
may target a single analyte or multiple analytes. Often the term is
biosensor is used to describe only the detector. A the C3B a biosensor
comprises the complete functional analytical system that may include:
the bio-detector, data capture and analysis instrumentation, data
analysis and presentation software, and reporting.
Biochips-Type I Devices
that are formed using microelectronics fabrication techniques and
technologies and are given to a biological function. Example, a
sub-coetaneous transmitter-receiver for tracking an animal using the
Biochips-Type II High
density arrays of DNA and RNA-probes for the detection and measurement
of DNA and RNA sequences. These are effectively multi-element array
biosensors that are engineered using microelectronics fabrication
techniques and technologies. Example, the Affymetrix P53 gene chip.
bio-molecular switching devices that use the natural order and
templating characteristics of biologically active molecules such as DNA
to build complex structures capable of transistor-like switching
function. These are molecular electronic devices or molecular
element DNA array devices directed at gene expression, genotyping,
pharmacogenetics, and infectious disease diagnostics. Multiple element
array devices using any form of biomolecular recognition or interaction
and formed using techniques developed and used in microelectronics
manufacture. Integrated, micro-scale lab-on-a-chip instruments for
research, drug discovery and point-of-concern analysis. Integrated,
micro-scale devices for the controlled release of bioactive molecules
(drugs, hormones, growth factors, etc.)
of photolithography tools and various additive and subtractive
processes to define patterns that permit the building up of complex
structures of different materials into a functional device.
of silicon micromachining technologies to create complex functional
devices such as pumps, valves, motors, actuators and the like, on the
micron scale, by the selective etching of silicon. Also used to
describe devices formed on glass and plastics.
movement of very small volumes of liquids within very narrow channels
(100 microns or less) usually on silicon chips, but also on glass and
plastic substrates. The performance of various chemical engineering
unit operations such as separation, concentration, heat (heating or
cooling) and mass transfer (mixing) within very narrow channels (100
microns or less) usually on silicon chips, but also on glass and
plastic substrates. The development of pumps, sample collectors,
connectors and the like for the handling of fluids and the small sample
volumes (nanoliter to picoliter scale) associated with microfluidics.
selective etching of silicon to produce interconnected discrete volume
elements wherein various chemical process operations may be performed.
For example, a bioreactor may be formed by the immobilization of an
enzyme onto microshperes that are entrained within a reactor volume.
Perfusion of the enzyme's substrate through the reactor results in the
formation of product.
selective etching of silicon to produce a very high density of
extremely small wells within silicon chips.
development and application of software tools to the analysis, data
mining, and interpretation of large databases (e.g. those developed
from genomics research and drug screenings), to derive and present
binding for ligand fishing and biomolecular interaction studies. Point
of concern diagnostics and monitoring.