Charles E. Beard

Research Specialist

Collecting black flies with trichomycetes

Department of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
130 McGinty Court
E-143 Poole Agricultural Center
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0310
Phone: (864) 656-5070
FAX: (864) 656-5069 E-mail:



My current interest involves the physiology and ecology of trichomycete fungi. These fungi inhabit the guts of aquatic Diptera. Many of these fungi have defied in vitro culture and I try to determine the physiological parameters of the insect gut that are important in the growth of the fungi. This approach can give clues to the culture requirements. We are also studying the stream environment and the ecology of the symbiosis. I also have an interest in other aquatic Diptera symbiotes such as Coelomycidium, Oomycetes, and microsporidia. I retain an interest in structure-function relationships of higher plants as a remnant of my botanical training. I am also now involved in butterfly proboscis project. There is more information on this page.


The big pages at University of Kansas.
List of trichomycete publications up to 2012.
Publications 2012 and beyond. Including new species.

B.S. (1981) Biology. Mercer University, Macon, GA
M.S. (1987) Biology. Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA
Ph.D. (2002) Plant Physiology. Clemson University, Clemson, SC



Adler, P. H., Z. Wang and C. E. BEARD. 1996. First records of natural enemies from Chinese blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Med. Entomol. Zool. 47:291-292.

BEARD, C. E. and P. H. Adler. 2000. Bionomics, axenic culture and substrate-related variation in trichospores of Smittium megazygosporum. Mycologia 92:296-300.

BEARD, C. E. and P. H. Adler. 2002. Seasonality of trichomycetes in larval black flies from South Carolina, USA. Mycologia 94, 200-209.

BEARD, C. E. and P. H. Adler. 2003. Zygospores of selected Trichomycetes in larval Diptera of the families Chironomidae and Simuliidae. Mycologia 95:316-319.

BEARD, C. E., J. W. McCreadie, and P. H. Adler. 2003. Prevalence of the trichomycete fungus Harpella melusinae (Harpellales: Harpellaceae) in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) across a heterogeneous environment. Mycologia 95:577-583.

McCreadie, J. W. and C. E. BEARD. 2003. The microdistribution of the trichomycete Smittium culisetae in the hindgut of the black fly host Simulium vittatum. Mycologia 95: 998-1003.

Reeves, W. K., C. E. BEARD, and D. A. Craig. 2004. Trichomycete symbiotes of Crozetia seguyi, a primitive black fly. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 87:67-69.

McCreadie, J. W., C. E. BEARD, and P. H. Adler. 2005. Context-dependent symbiosis between black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and trichomycete fungi (Harpellales: Legeriomycetaceae). Oikos 108:362-370.

Nelder, M. P., J. W. McCreadie, and C. E. BEARD. 2005. Laboratory investigations of trichomycete host usage in a Smittium-simuliid model. Mycologia 97:338-345.

Nelder, M. P., C. E. BEARD, P. H. Adler, S.-K. Kim, and J. W. McCreadie. 2006. Harpellales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes) associated with black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): world review and synthesis of their ecology and taxonomy. Fungal Diversity 22: 121-169.

BEARD, C. E. 2008. Trichomycetes (pp 3908-3912). In, Capinera, J. L. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Entomology (2nd edition). Springer.

Nelder, M.P., J. W. McCreadie, and C. E. BEARD. 2009. Predicting occurrence of the fungal symbiote Harpella colonizing black fly larvae in coastal streams of Alabama and Mississippi, USA. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102:1-5.

Nelder, M. P., C. E. BEARD, and J. W. McCreadie. 2010. Seasonality and host usage of trichomycetes in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of southern Alabama, USA. Fungal Ecology 3:43-48.

McCreadie, J. W., P. H. Adler and C. E. BEARD. 2011. Ecology of symbiotes of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): distribution, diversity, and scale. (Invited) Environmental Entomology 40:289-302.

Monaenkova, D., M. S. Lehnert, T. Andrukh, C. E. BEARD, B. Rubin, A. Tokarev, W.-K. Lee, P. H. Adler and K. G. Kornev. 2011. Butterfly proboscis: combining a drinking straw with a nanosponge facilitated diversification of feeding habits. Journal of the Royal Society Interface Sept. 7, 2011