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Avoiding Plagiarism

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Clemson Libraries

How To Cite

Which Style Guide Should I Use?

  1. Follow the format your professor suggests.

  2. Ask your professor what to use if no format was assigned.

  3. If you have no advice from your professor, try these:

(especially literature
or languages)


Modern Language Association (MLA) Handbook

Basic MLA Citations (pdf)


Social sciences
(especially psychology, behavioral science, and education)


American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual

Basic APA Citations (pdf)

Physical and natural sciences  

CSE (Council of Scientific Editors) Manual

A general guide  

Turabian is used by students in all disciplines. It is designed to complement the Chicago Manual of Style, but is simpler and easier to use.

A very detailed guide  

The Chicago Manual of Style is used by scholarly writers in all disciplines.

It contains two separate styles, one for writers in literature, history, and the arts, and one for writers in the physical, natural and social sciences.

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Adapted from Duke University Libraries' "Avoiding Plagiarism"
Avoiding Plagiarism