This information has been reviewed and adapted for use in South Carolina by P.H. Schmutz, HGIC Food Safety Specialist, and E.H. Hoyle, Extension Food Safety Specialist, Clemson University. (New 05/03.)
When you're expecting, it's natural to be concerned about your health and that of your unborn baby. Maintaining a healthful diet, drinking plenty of liquids and taking prenatal vitamins are all important for the health of the expectant mother and her baby. Food safety is also very important. This information will help you make safe decisions when selecting and preparing food for yourself and/or your family.
Listeriosis is an illness caused by eating foods contaminated with a kind of bacteria, often found in soil and water, called Listeria monocytogenes. Most people do not get listeriosis. However, pregnant women and newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems caused by cancer treatments, AIDS, diabetes or kidney disease, for example, are at risk for becoming seriously ill from eating foods that contain Listeria monocytogenes . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 2,500 people in the United States become seriously ill from listeriosis each year. Of these, one in five die from the disease.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy have an effect on the mother's immune system that leads to an increased susceptibility to listeriosis. According to the CDC, pregnant women are about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis. In fact, about one-third of listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy. Listeriosis can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta even if the mother is not showing signs of illness. This can lead to premature delivery, miscarriage, still-birth or serious health problems for her newborn.
Because the symptoms of listeriosis can take a few days or even weeks to appear and can be mild, you may not even know you have it. This is why it's very important to take appropriate food safety precautions during pregnancy.
Listeriosis has flu-like symptoms, such as fever and chills. Sometimes the illness will cause an upset stomach, but not always. If the infection spreads to the nervous system, symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance or convulsions can occur. While infected pregnant women may experience only mild, flu-like illness, the mother's illness can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta with more serious problems for her baby.
It takes an average of three weeks for someone to become ill. If you are an at-risk individual and/or have symptoms that concern you, consult your physician. Listeriosis can be treated with antibiotics.
Pregnant women and all at-risk consumers should follow this advice to prevent listeriosis:
Follow these four simple steps to food safety:
Do not eat any food that is recalled and ordered off grocery store shelves. Return recalled food to the place where you bought it.
If you have eaten a contaminated product and do not have any symptoms, most experts believe you don't need any tests or treatment, even if you are pregnant. However, you should inform your physician or healthcare provider if you are pregnant and have eaten a contaminated product and experienced flu-like symptoms within two months.
For more information on food safety during pregnancy, request HGIC 3640, Food Safety for Pregnant Women & Their Babies.
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This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.