This information has been reviewed and adapted for use in South Carolina by Janis G. Hunter, HGIC Nutrition Specialist, and Katherine L. Cason, Professor, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Clemson University. (New 10/08.)
Solid foods can complement the nutrition from breast milk or formula. When ready for solid foods, your baby will:
If your baby doesn’t seem interested, don’t force them to eat solid foods. Simply wait a few days and try again.
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Nutrition Facts on food labels don’t apply to children under age two. Infant and toddler food labels supply different information from adult food labels. Serving sizes are based on average amounts that an infant or toddler will eat at one time. Also, food labels don’t list the calories from fat, just the total fat and trans fat per serving.
Don’t limit the fat intake of a baby or toddler less than two years of age. They are growing fast and need fat as a concentrated energy source and for the essential fatty acids it contains.
Serve your baby several mini-meals, because their stomach is small and fills up quickly. Choose the same healthy foods for snacks that you serve at mealtime so your baby learns to eat healthy foods any time of day.
Your baby will set the pace for feeding, so don’t rush them or try to go slower. Let your baby rest between spoonfuls to feel full and avoid overeating.
Reward good behavior with praise and hugs, not food. Rewarding your baby’s good behavior with food causes a negative relationship with food.
Add Solid Foods Slowly: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends feeding only breast milk or a prepared iron-fortified formula until infants are four to six months of age. Because all babies are not ready to eat solid foods at the same time, your baby’s doctor can tell you the best time to start giving solids to your infant. Refer to HGIC 4100, Feeding Your Infant for general guidelines on when to offer specific foods to your infant.
Introduce New Foods Properly: Follow these tips when giving new foods to your baby.
Beware of Foods That Choke: A child should be able to bite and chew foods but not put them into their mouths whole. Avoid foods that are round and firm, slippery, sticky, or cut in large chunks, since these foods may cause choking. Do not serve your infant the following:
Toddlers can begin to eat some of these foods if cut into small pieces. Appropriate finger foods for older babies and toddlers are pieces of banana, graham crackers, and strips of cheese or bagels. Usually a toddler can manage food up to ¼ inch, and a preschooler can eat food no larger than ½ inch.
Avoid feeding your baby in the car, because it is hard to help them if they get choked while the car is moving. Propping your baby’s bottle at feeding time is a choking hazard, also. Be prepared to use the Heimlich maneuver technique for infants and toddlers if your child is choking and can’t breathe, cough, talk, or cry.
Encourage Baby to Accept New Foods: Don’t give up if your baby rejects a new food the first time you offer it to them. Research shows that a baby must be exposed to a new food up to 10 times before they decide they like it. If your baby makes a little face when you offer a new food, they are simply saying, “I don’t recognize that food.”
To improve chances of acceptance, offer a new food at several different meals. Also, try mixing a little of a new food with one you know they already like. For example, if your baby likes bananas, then introduce peaches by mixing them with bananas.
Your baby may like foods that you dislike, so don’t let your food biases limit what you feed your baby. Offer them a wide variety of foods with different flavors, colors, shapes and textures. This makes mealtime more fun while meeting their nutritional needs. However, remember that your baby’s likes and dislikes may change from week to week.
Let Baby Drink From a Cup: Most babies enjoy trying to drink from a cup at about six to nine months of age. Choose a child-size unbreakable cup, preferably a covered one with a spout and without handles, which makes it easier for a young child to hold. Limit use to mealtime or snack time. Sipping throughout the day may cause tooth decay.
Limit Juice: Serve only small amounts of juice, and choose 100% unsweetened pasteurized fruit or vegetable juice and not fruit drinks. Make sure that drinking juice doesn’t interfere with your infant ’s eating of other nutritious foods. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends giving juice only to infants who are about 6 months or older and who can drink from a cup. They also recommend offering no more than four to six ounces (TOTAL) of juice a day.
Don’t Serve Cereal Mixed With Formula From a Bottle: This practice has not been proven to help a baby sleep better through the night or stop crying. The Yale Guide to Children’s Nutrition shows no connection between eating solid foods (including cereal in a bottle) and improved sleep patterns in infants.
Serving cereal from a bottle may cause a baby to choke. Putting cereal in the milk also may give a baby too much cereal and not enough milk, leading to a lowered nutritional intake. Babies tend to fill up after eating a certain volume of food.
Recognize Cues for “I’m Hungry” & “I’m Full”: If your baby is hungry, they will move their head forward to reach the spoon and hold their mouth open as the spoon approaches. They also may swipe food toward their mouth, point, nod or grab the spoon.
To signal that they are full, your baby may:
When your baby gives you any of these cues, stop feeding and offer something to drink. If they still aren’t interested in eating, it’s time to stop. Never force your infant to clean their plate.
Know the Signs of Food Sensitivity: If your baby is sensitive to a food, they may react by developing a rash, diarrhea, vomiting or wheezing. However, a change in the consistency or color of a baby’s stool does not necessarily indicate sensitivity to a food.
Keep track of foods your baby eats, noting if any food causes a significant and ongoing reaction. If it does, then talk to your baby’s doctor or health care provider to help you develop an eating plan that’s best for your baby.
Avoid Honey and Corn Syrup: These foods may contain botulism spores that could cause illness or death in infants younger than twelve months of age, although they do not cause problems for older children and adults.
Serve Solid Foods Safely: Follow these steps to reduce bacterial growth in food and keep your baby from getting sick.
Microwave Foods Carefully: Baby foods can be slightly warmed, served at room temperature or cold. If you decide to heat your baby’s food in the microwave, follow these safety tips.
Follow the 2-Hour Rule: Never leave baby food, solid or liquid, at room temperature for more than two hours. If food is left out longer, bacteria can grow to harmful levels. For more food safety tips, refer to HGIC 3640, Food Safety for Pregnant Women & Their Babies.
Most commercial baby food companies today don’t add salt, sugar and starch, which is a big change from the past. With nutrition labeling, you can be assured of what’s in the food. Commercial baby food companies package baby food for different stages, such as stage 1, 2 or 3, depending on the texture of the food.
However, you don’t have to buy commercially prepared infant food. You can make nutritious, economical baby food at home from fresh ingredients. For example, vegetables and fruits (fresh-cooked, canned or frozen), can be pureed with no added salt, sugar or fat. Puree means to put food through a sieve or grinder to make the food into a liquid-like, smooth texture.
Using simple kitchen tools (e.g. fork, blender, strainer, food mill, or baby food grinder), you can adapt many foods from the family table to suit your baby. You may need to add some fluid (formula, breast milk, water or cooking water) to make it the right consistency for your baby.
To freeze baby food, pour the cooled, pureed food into a paper cupcake liner or a section of a clean ice cube tray and cover with foil. When solidly frozen, place cubes in a freezer bag or container and store in the freezer. Reheat frozen cubes in a heat-resistant container in a pan of hot water.
Refer to HGIC 4259, Making Your Own Baby Food for more information and pureed baby food recipes.
Your role is to offer a wide variety of nutritious foods that are appropriate for your child’s age, in a friendly and loving way. Include at least one item that you’re sure your child likes. Parents also decide when and where the foods are eaten.
Your baby is responsible for deciding which of the offered foods to eat and how much. Respect your child’s choice to eat nothing sometimes, because they will usually make up the missed calories at the next meal or the next day. Never bribe or apply pressure to get your child to eat. Babies know when they have had enough and want to stop eating.
Healthy eating is a learning adventure, which begins with a positive parent-child partnership. You should set a good example by eating a variety of healthful foods. If you refuse to eat carrots or green peas, your child may react the same way.
This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.