Prepared by Karen Russ, HGIC Horticulture Specialist, and Al Pertuit, Extension Floriculture Specialist, Clemson University. (New 03/99.)
Philodendrons are among the most common and easy-to-grow houseplants. Many tolerate low light and neglect. If well treated, they will be beautiful and dependable for many years.
The vining types can be limited in height by the height of their support and by training and pruning. The self-heading types eventually can become very large and should be given ample space.
This diverse group of plants ranges from vines with 3-inch heart shaped green leaves to vines with leaves 3 feet long. Some types have glossy solid green leaves, others have velvet textured patterned leaves, while some have deep red leaves and stems.
While the most common types of philodendrons are vining, some are self-heading. Self headers send out leaves from a heavy clump of growth at their base. These often have dramatically large leaves in a variety of shapes.
Most philodendrons prefer indirect or curtain-filtered sunlight but will tolerate low light. The common heartleaf philodendron (Philodendron scandens) will tolerate very low light. Night temperatures of 65 to 70 °F and day temperatures of 75 to 85 °F are ideal.
Water frequently enough to keep the soil evenly moist, but not soggy. Never let the plants stand in water. High humidity is ideal for best growth, but philodendrons tolerate the low level of humidity in most homes.
Fertilize philodendrons regularly with a dilute water-soluble houseplant fertilizer, or use a time-release fertilizer.
You can repot overcrowded plants at any season, using a general-purpose potting soil. Plants may be propagated at any season from stem cuttings, or by air layering. Some philodendrons will produce offsets.
In the home, plant diseases are very rarely a problem. Too much or too little water plus insects and mites are the main problems. Root rot usually results from a soil mix that does not drain quickly or overly frequent watering.
Yellowing of lower leaves and the death of the growing tips can be caused by too little light or overwatering. Too much fertilizer can cause tips of leaves to curl and brown. The long leaf stalks of self-heading types are brittle. Locate these plants out of traffic paths to avoid damage.
While philodendrons are generally pest-free, aphids, mealybugs, scales and spider mites can infest them.
Some philodendrons contain a chemical that causes a burning sensation and can be toxic if the foliage is eaten. Keep philodendrons away from any pets or young children that may eat plants.
Fiddle Leaf Philodendron (P. panduriforme): This philodendron is a climber with 12-to 18-inch, fiddle-shaped, leathery leaves that are olive green. It is slow growing and durable.
Tree Philodendron (P. bipinnatifidum): Tree philodendrons have a self-heading growth habit. The large, dark green leaves have deep irregular slits and can grow up to 3 feet long on a robust, erect stem. This can grow to be a very large plant and will be too large for most homes. Tree philodendrons grow best with medium to bright light near an east, west or south window.
Heartleaf Philodendron (P. scandens): This well-known philodendron has 2- to 4-inch dark green, heart-shaped leaves. Heartleaf philodendron is commonly grown in hanging baskets, dish gardens and as groundcover in larger planters. It may also be trained upwards on bark-or moss-covered boards or totem poles.
This plant is quite tolerant of low light conditions. It will grow well under artificial or existing room light, or near a north, east or west window. Heartleaf philodendrons grow well in warm temperatures of 70 to 85 °F during the day and 65 to 75 °F at night. These are very easy and adaptable plants.
There are two common variants of heartleaf philodendron. They may occasionally be listed as separate species.
Common Heartleaf Philodendron or Parlor Ivy (P. scandens f. oxycardium): This form has glossy, green leaves that are bronzed when young.
Velvet Philodendron (P. scandens f. micans): This philodendron has velvet-textured heart-shaped leaves that are usually bronze with reddish brown undersides.
Elephant's Ear Philodendron (P. domesticum): The narrow, arrow-shaped leaves of this climber are 18 to 24 inches long with wavy margins.
Red-leaf Philodendron (P. erubescens): This sturdy climber has 10-to 16-inches, dark green leaves that are red to copper on the underside. The stems are reddish-purple while young. There are several cultivars selected for their color.
Birdsnest Philodendron (P. imbe): This climber, with long, aerial roots and red stems, has 14 inch arrow-shaped leaves that are red on the underside.
Velour Philodendron (P. melanochrysum): Striking heart-shaped, velvety leaves grow up to 3 feet long. They are blackish green with pale green veins. This is a climbing philodendron. As with most philodendrons , its leaves will not reach full size unless the plant is trained vertically for several years. Several hybrids with other species have produced very decorative leaf patterns.
Split Leaf Philodendron (Monstera deliciosa): This large-leafed plant is not a true philodendron but is closely related. Its leaves are small and round when they first emerge, but develop holes and deep cuts as they mature. It is also known as the Swiss cheese plant. Monsteras can be grown like a tree philodendron. They will not develop the interesting perforations in their leaves if the light level is too low.
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