Prepared by Marjan Kluepfel, HGIC Information Specialist, and Bob Polomski, Extension Consumer Horticulturist, Clemson University. (New 06/99. Images added 04/07.)
Periwinkle is also called vinca or myrtle. Of the 12 species of periwinkle, two are popular groundcovers. All species have opposite leaves and single flowers. The perennial periwinkle should not be confused with the bedding plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).
Periwinkle (Vinca minor) is an excellent evergreen groundcover with dark green foliage. Oblong to ovate leaves are opposite, simple, ½ to 2 inches long, glossy, with a short petiole. They exude a milky juice when broken. Flowers are purple, blue or white depending on the cultivar. Plants bloom in March or April and sometimes again in the fall. Vinca minor grows about 6 inches tall, spreading in all directions by sending out long trailing and rooting shoots, which make new plants.
Periwinkle flowers in early spring
Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Vinca major or large periwinkle is a larger, more aggressive species than V. minor. Leaves are up to 3 inches long. The blue, funnel-shaped flowers are 1 to 2 inches in diameter. They are borne in abundance in early spring and sporadically throughout the summer. Large periwinkle spreads rapidly and will mound up to 2 feet. Non-flowering stems root at the tips where they touch the ground.
New growth of variegated large periwinkle emerges in spring.
Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
The trailing, arching stems that root where they touch the soil make these evergreen plants useful as groundcovers, for erosion control on banks, or for cascading from window boxes or planters. Periwinkle grows well under trees and shrubs, on shaded slopes or on the north side of buildings. Spring-flowering bulbs interplanted with periwinkle will lend color and interest to the groundcover planting. Daffodils are particularly well-suited since they bloom with periwinkle and do not require frequent division.
Periwinkle prefers shade but will grow well in full sun. The foliage color is richer green in partial shade, but more flowers are produced in the sun. Rooted cuttings or established plants are normally spaced from 12 to 18 inches apart. At a 6-inch spacing periwinkle will completely cover an area in one year. Plant whenever the soil is workable and provide sufficient water, especially when planting in summer. Weeding and mulching are required on a regular basis until the groundcover fills in the planted area. Periwinkle prefers moist, well-drained soil, abundantly supplied with organic matter, but it is tolerant of a wide variety of soil conditions. Fertilize only when necessary, preferably in the spring with a complete fertilizer such as 10-10-10 at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Occasionally shear plants close to the ground to encourage new growth. Propagate by taking tip cuttings of non-flowering stems in late spring or divide throughout the season.
Periwinkle is susceptible to dieback (plants wilt and "die back" to the ground), caused by fungal diseases. Cankers, which are sunken, wound-like lesions, may be visible on the stem near the ground-line. Fungal leaf spots occasionally occur and look like brown circular-to-oval spots on the leaves. Infected leaves should be sheared off and discarded. To reduce fungal infection, avoid overhead irrigation. Chemical control is seldom necessary.
Page maintained by: Home & Garden Information Center
This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.