University Facilities

Division 32 - Exterior Improvements

32 00 00 General Information

Design

This division covers the design and specifications of exterior improvements including paving roads, parking lots, curbs, sidewalks, and landscaping associated with construction projects at Clemson University. The work specified under this division must be carefully coordinated with the work that is associated in other divisions dealing with site utilities and landscaping including, OSHA regulations, erosion and sediment control, notifications to the local utility locating service, and to comply with CU Fire Marshal’s Fire apparatus access requirements.

Contractual responsibilities for testing are identified in Division 1 Section “Quality Requirements”. The designer will specify all testing requirements in accordance with pertinent codes and standards. In general, the owner will engage a testing laboratory as needed to perform materials testing on the specified products. Materials failing to meet the specified requirements shall be retested at the contractor's expense. The testing agency will conduct and interpret tests and state in each report whether tested work complies with or deviates from specified requirements. Additional testing of work that was initially found not to be in compliance with the specifications will be conducted at the expense of the contractor. The contractor shall be responsible for coordination of testing services and maintain a log, preparation of test cylinders as needed, etc.

Specify complete technical data and performance properties for each product design, certifications, qualification of firms Specify any warranties, certificates, or test reports signed by the applicable manufacturer or contractor, certifying that each material complies with requirements. Require MSDS sheets on each product as requested by the owner.

Instruct contractor to conduct operations so as to minimize any disruption to the owner's operation. The contractor is responsible for the protection of any existing property or utilities in or adjacent to the construction site. Protect exterior improvements from damage. Protect the surface finish of newly placed concrete or asphalt paving from damage by rainwater or construction traffic. Maintain exterior improvements free of stains, discoloration, dirt, and other foreign material until substantial completion.

Provide all necessary barricades, flagmen, or other traffic control devices to prevent injury to people or damage to adjacent property or facilities. This protection includes the existing landscape and plantings. Provide protection for people and pedestrian traffic around the construction area. Do not close or obstruct adjacent streets and pedestrian walkways without permission from the project manager. Promptly repair, or remove and replace, project components, damaged utilities and owner’s property, that are broken or defective or that do not comply with requirements in this Division, as directed by the project manager at no additional expense to the owner.

32 01 16 Cold Milling of Existing Asphalt Pavement

Milling shall reference the requirements of Division 31 and the appropriate sections of the SCDOT “Standard Specifications for Highway Construction”. Specify milling must be scheduled so that the period of time between the milling and the installation of the new paving is minimized. The schedule must be approved by the Project Manager.

Specify the equipment to have a self-contained water system to control dust and other fine particles. Specify the planed surface to be free from gouges, ridges, oil film, and shall have a uniform appearance suitable as a riding surface that is capable of handling traffic prior to the installation of the new paving.

The designer shall require particular care to be taken in milling adjacent to existing utility rings and covers and beneath existing tree cover. Damages to adjacent structures and areas where all of the existing paving is removed shall be stabilized and/or repaired as directed by the project manager at no additional cost to the owner.

The milling debris becomes the property of the contractor and shall be disposed of by the contractor in compliance with all statutes governing the disposal of this waste. Recycling of the milling waste is strongly encouraged.

32 10 00 Bases, Ballasts, and Paving

Design, material, and execution shall adhere to applicable standards that apply to aspects of asphalt and concrete construction. Among these referenced may include the following:

  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO):
  • M 154 Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete
  • M 226 Viscosity Graded Asphalt Cement
  • T 179 Effect of Heat and Air on Asphalt Materials
  • T180 Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 4.54-kg rammer and a 457-mm drop.
  • T 245 Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous Mixtures Using Marshall Apparatus
  • American Concrete Institute (ACI) Publications:
  • ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete
  • ACI 305 Recommended Practices for Hot Weather Concreting
  • ACI 306 Recommended Practices for Cold Weather Concreting
  • ACI 308 Standard Practice for Curing Concrete
  • ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
  • ACI 347 Guide to Formwork for Concrete
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Publications:
  • A 82 Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement
  • A 185 Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement
  • A 307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength
  • A 615 Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
  • A 780 Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings
  • C 31 Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field
  • C 33 Concrete Aggregates
  • C 39-72 Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
  • C 42 Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
  • C 94 Ready-Mixed Concrete
  • C 143 Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
  • C 150 Portland Cement
  • C 171 Sheet Materials for Curing Concrete
  • C 172 Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete
  • C 231 Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
  • C 260 Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete
  • C 309 Liquid Membrane-Forming Compounds for Curing Concrete
  • C 494 Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
  • C 881 Epoxy-Resin-Base Bonding Systems for Concrete
  • C 1059 Latex Agents for Bonding Fresh To Hardened Concrete
  • C 1064 Temperature of Freshly Mixed Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
  • D 698 Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using- Standard Effort
  • D 946 Penetration Graded Asphalt Cement for Use in Pavement Construction
  • D 979 Sampling Bituminous Paving Mixtures
  • D 1188 Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted- Bituminous Mixtures Using Coated Samples
  • D1556 Density of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method.
  • D1557 Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort
  • D 1751 Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction
  • D 1752 Preformed Sponge Rubber Cork and Recycled PVC- Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction
  • D 2167 Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
  • D 2726 Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Non-Absorptive Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
  • D 2922 Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods
  • D 2950 Density of Bituminous Concrete in Place by Nuclear Methods
  • D 3017 Water Content of Soil and Rock in Place by Nuclear Methods
  • D 3549 Thickness or Height of Compacted Bituminous Paving Mixture Specimens
  • D 5581 Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous Mixtures
  • E 329 Agencies Engaged in Construction Inspection, Testing, or Special Inspection
  • Asphalt Institute: MS-4 “The Asphalt Handbook”
  • Concretes and Reinforcing Steel (CRSI): "Manual of Standard Practice"
  • South Carolina Department of Transportation “Standard Specifications for Highway Construction”

The designer shall detail the examination, preparation, quality control measures, temperature and other environmental factors, for the installation of the base courses, paving, and concrete materials in accordance with the above referenced standards. Specify the type and frequency of testing and inspection. Stipulate alterations or correction procedures. Instruct the contractor to verify existing conditions before starting work. Design all surface paving and exterior flatwork with a positive drainage flow towards appropriate conveyance.

32 11 23 Aggregate Base Courses

Provide placement instructions with emphasis that application on frozen, muddy, or soft surfaces is prohibited unless addressed in the design. Contractor to provide for labor and a ten (10) foot straight edge in the vicinity of paving operation at all times for measuring surface irregularities. The surface of all courses shall be checked with a straight edge as necessary to detect surface irregularities. Unless other conditions warrant, design tolerances from the above referenced standards are:

  • Flatness: Maximum variation of ½ inch measured with an acceptable 10–foot straight edge.
  • Scheduled Compacted Thickness: Within 3/8 inch.
  • Variation from Design Elevation: Within ½ inch.

32 11 26 Asphaltic Base Courses

As with aggregate base courses tolerances shall be checked with a straight edge as necessary to detect surface irregularities. Unless other conditions warrant, design tolerances from the above referenced standards are:

  • Flatness: Maximum variation of 1/4 inch measured with an acceptable 10 foot straight edge.
  • Scheduled Compacted Thickness: Within 3/8 inch.
  • Variation from Design Elevation: Within 3/8 inch.

32 12 16 Asphalt Paving

Design must indicate placement of hot-mix asphalt binder course in number of lifts and thicknesses. Unless other conditions warrant, design tolerances from the above referenced standards are:

  • Base and Binder Course Thickness: Within ½ inch.
  • Surface Course Thickness: Within ¼ inch.
Compact each course to produce a surface smoothness within the following tolerances as determined by using a 10-foot straight edge applied transversely or longitudinally to paved areas:
  • Base or Binder Course: ¼ inch
  • Surface Course: 1/8 inch
  • Crowned Surface: Test with crowned template centered and at right angle to crown.
  • Maximum Variance from template is ¼ inch.

Designate contractor to reset utility frames for manhole covers, cleanout covers, valve boxes, and other such units with areas to be paved to the final grade as part of this work. It is preferred that adjustments be made with appropriate paving rings. Surround the frames that have been adjusted to grade with a ring of compacted asphalt base prior to paving. Adjust frames as required for paving, providing temporary closures over openings to prevent damage during the rolling operations and construction traffic. Replace covers at the completion of the paving operation.

The contractor shall be responsible for the installation of any signalization sensor loops beneath the finish asphalt surface course. The installation of these sensor loops shall be provided by an SCDOT approved installer/contractor. Loops shall be installed prior to the placement of the finish asphalt surface course.

Design concrete paving in lieu of asphalt, in any loading dock, dumpster pad, or receiving area subject to heavy vehicular traffic, or where liquid oxygen may be present.

32 13 13 Concrete Paving

Unless other conditions warrant, specify concrete with the compressive strength of 4000 psi for 28-day strength as minimum for pavements and curb and gutter subject to vehicular traffic. Specify reinforcement method. Specify slump in the range of 1 to 2.5 inches for slip-form paving and no greater than 4 inches for fixed-form or other means of paving. Specify entrained air voids in the mix ranges from 3% to 6% at the point of placement in the roadway. Unless other conditions warrant, design tolerances are:

  • Maximum Variation of Surface Flatness: 1/4 inch in 10 feet.
  • Maximum Variation From True Position: 1/2 inch.
  • Maximum Variation in Thickness: 1/2 inch.

Contractor to proceed with concrete pavement operations only after nonconforming conditions have been corrected and subgrade is ready to receive pavement. Inspect and complete formwork installation, steel reinforcement, and items to be embedded or cast in. Provide and maintain sufficient tools and equipment on hand to facilitate uninterrupted placement of the concrete. Do not use concrete that is not placed within one hour after water is first introduced into the mix Emphasize consolidating concrete with care to prevent dislocating reinforcement, dowels, and joint devices. Honeycombed areas are considered defective and will not be accepted.

Specify construction, isolation, and contraction joints and tool edgings true to line with faces perpendicular to surface plane of concrete. Specify temperature and environmental conditions and note concrete which fails to meet strength requirements, dimensional tolerances, watertightness criteria, or is otherwise deficient due to insufficient curing, improper consolidation or physical damage shall be replaced or repaired as instructed by the project manager at no expense to the Owner.

Specify finish surfaces to true planes. Draw a soft bristle broom across float-finished concrete surface perpendicular to line of traffic to provide a uniform, fine-line texture.

Allow concrete curing by moisture curing, moisture-retaining-cover curing, curing compound, or a combination of these methods.

Contractor to protect freshly placed concrete from mechanical injury, premature drying, and excessive cold or hot temperatures. Exclude vehicular traffic from concrete pavement for at least 14 days after placement.

32 16 13 Concrete Curbs, Gutters, and Sidewalks

Concrete work shall reference the requirements of Division 3 as well as 32 13 13. The location and type of curb and gutter shall match adjacent whenever possible.

Provide concrete with the compressive strength of 3000 psi for 28-day strength as minimum for sidewalks and curb and gutters not subject to vehicular traffic. Specify slump and air entrainment, environmental conditions, reinforcement method and joint location.

Finish all concrete surfaces in accordance with the following schedule:

  • Form finish: Surfaces not ordinarily exposed to view; including the underside of slabs not exposed to view by repairing defective concrete, filling tie holes and depressions deeper than 1/4", and also remove fins exceeding 1/8" in height.
  • Broom finish: Exterior slabs exposed to view including: Outdoor floor slabs and walkways, other floors which may become wet or otherwise require a non-skid surface, Sidewalks and concrete pavements. Provide a scored texture by drawing a broom across the surface.
  • Edge finish: Exposed edges of slabs not receiving chamfer including: Sidewalk and pavement edges and joints. Tool slab edges with a ¼” radius tool.

32 17 23 Pavement Markings

Specify paving to cure for 14 to 30 days before starting pavement markings. Sweep and clean surface prior to painting to remove any loose material and dust. Apply paint with mechanical equipment to produce pavement markings with uniform, straight edges.

Pavements markings shall consist of pavement marking paint or thermoplastic pavement markings as required by the project manager or authorities having jurisdiction. Paint shall typically be used for low traffic installations such as parking lots and Thermoplastic shall be used for higher traffic applications.

32 80 00 Irrigation

Provide an irrigation system if determined necessary by the University Landscape Architect for all new or renovated lawn areas and planting beds designed and constructed by the project.

Specify all site irrigation system controls shall be Weathermatic compatible.

Design all systems with appropriate backflow preventers and require a manual shutoff valve to isolate the irrigation system from the water supply main.

Record “as-built” drawings for all newly installed, removed and/or relocated irrigation sprinkler piping including location and type designation of all associated sprinkler heads, valves, controllers, etc.

The contractor shall take necessary precautions to protect site conditions to remain. All work in the vicinity of trees shall be in accordance with the Campus Tree Protection Policy.

32 84 23 Underground Sprinklers

Depending on the size and scope of the irrigation on a project, Landscape Services may choose to do the installation with their own forces. The designer shall discuss this with the Project Manager.

If the installation of the underground sprinkler system is specified as part of the construction contract, specify that the contractor shall notify Landscape Services prior to beginning the installation and make all underground work available for inspection by Landscape Services prior to covering.

DIVISION 32 – EXTERIOR IMPROVEMENTS

Aggregate Base Course: conforming to Section 801 of SCDOT standard Specifications.

Coarse Aggregate Type A or B gradation of ABC

Fine Aggregate: Sand gradation 1S or 2S

Hot Mix Asphalt Surface Course:

Type CM as specified in Section 403 (2” compacted typical)

Hot Mix Asphalt Binder Course:

Type C as specified in Section 402 (3” compacted typical)

Hot Mix Asphalt Base Course:

Type B as specified in Section 310 (4” compacted typical)

Pavement Marking Paint: Sherwin Williams SetFast Traffic Marking Paint (Lead Free)

• Highway White: Finish 0.0TM0226 – Acrylic Waterbourne Paint White

• Handicap Blue: Finish 0.0TM2133 – Latex Paint Blue

• Firelane Red: Finish 0.0TM2132 - Latex Paint Red

• Blackout Black: Finish 0.0TM2135 - Latex Paint Black

• Highway Yellow: Finish 0.0TM0227 - Acrylic Waterbourne Paint Yellow

• Green Marking Paint: Finish 0.0TM0226 - Acrylic Waterbourne Paint White (Formula [5 gallons] – 50/31 b1, 60/32 y3, 8 oz. G2, 47/32 y1)

• Clemson Orange Marking Paint: Finish 0.0TM0227 – Acrylic Waterbourne Paint Yellow (Formula [5 gallons] – add 1 gallon DTM safety Red to 4 gallons Setfast Yellow

• Magenta: Finish 0.0TM0226 - Acrylic Waterbourne Traffic Marking Paint White (Formula [5 gallons] 4 oz 47/32 b1, 61/32 1/128 r2, 16 oz .38/32 r33)

Glass Beads:

Comply with AASHTO M-247

Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement Grid:

Tensar BX1100 Geogrid 32 12 16-2

Underground Sprinkler Irrigation Systems

Spray nozzels Rainbird Van nozzel

Bubbler Orbit 54042 Full Plastic Mushroom Bubbler

Rotary Heads Weathermatic T3 or CT70 depending on size area covered (Speers or Lesco swingjoint)

Spray heads Weathermatic LX series

Valves Weathermatic 1'' Blackmax 11024FCR-10 1.5'' Blackmax 11024FCR-15

Controller Weathermatic Smartline SL1600 series 2wire Over 24 zones needs Smartline SL4800 series 2wire

Weatherstation Weathermatic Smartline SLW15

Drip NDS Agrifim SFPC-BR-6412-05 (Needs 40PSI pressure regulator and filter) Only compression fittings to be used.

Valveboxes NDS Pro Series 6'' part number 208BC 10'' part number 212BC