The Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management

Dr. Dorothy "Dart" L. Schmalz

Associate Professor
Tel: 864-656-2184
Location: 286 Lehotsky Hall

B.A. The College of Wooster (History), Wooster, OH
M.S. The Pennsylvania State University (Leisure Studies), University Park, PA
Ph.D The Pennsylvania State University (Leisure Studies), University Park, PA

Additional Professional Responsibilities:
  • Associate Editor, Leisure Sciences
Research Interests:
  • Obesity stigma
  • Effects of discrimination and prejudice on recreation and leisure
  • Leisure in culture
  • Social identities in leisure
Publications: (last 5 years)

Schmalz, D. L. (in press, 2011). Girls' recreational sports. In V. J. Freysinger, K. A. Henderson, S. M. Shaw, & M. D. Bialeschki (Eds.). Leisure, women, and gender. State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., & Kleiber, D. A. (2011). An evaluation of developmental outcomes at a free-choice oriented girls summer camp. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership. 3, 1, 53-69.

Ransdell, L. B., & Schmalz, D. L. (2010). Healthy sports. In B. Ainsworth, G. Godbey, & L. Payne (Eds.). Leisure Health and Wellness: Making the Connections (p. 425-436). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

McCall, G. D., Williams, J. E., Schmalz, D. L., & Miller, R. J. (2010). American boys and body image: A review of weight gain and weight loss issues. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 25, 351–361.

Davison, K. K., Schmalz, D. L., & Downs, D. S. (2010). Hop, skip ... no!  Reasons adolescent girls disengage from physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 290-302.

Schmalz, D. L. (2010). "I feel fat": Weight related stigmas, body esteem, and BMI as predictors of perceived competence in physical activities. Obesity Facts: The European Journal of Obesity, 3, 15-21.

Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., & Anderson, D. M. (2008). Stigma consciousness as a predictor of children's participation in recreational vs. competitive sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 276-297.

Davison, K. K., Schmalz, D. L., Young, L., & Birch, L. L. (2008). Overweight girls who internalize fat stereotypes report low psychosocial well-being. Obesity, 16(Suppl. 2), S30-S38.

Schmalz, D. L., Deane, G. D., Birch, L. L., & Davison, K. K. (2007). A longitudinal assessment of the links between participation in physical activity and self-esteem among girls from age 9 through 13. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 559-565.

Schmalz, D. L., & Kerstetter, D. L.  (2006). Girlie girls and manly men: Children's stigma consciousness of gender in sports and physical activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 38, 536-557.

Schmalz, D. L., & Davison, K. K. (2006).  Differences in physical self-concept among adolescents who participate in gender-typed, cross-gendered, and gender neutral sports.  Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 335-352.

Davison, K. K., & Schmalz, D. L. (2006). Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3, Article 5.  Available from

Grants and Self-funded Research Projects:

Student Success, Community Enhancement and University Service: An Upstate Promise Neighborhood Model. PI: Jones, R. Co-I: Cason, K., Drew, S., Mainella, F., McGuire, F., Parker, V., Rembert, K., Rosenblith, S., Schmalz, D. L.

Courses Taught:
  • PRTM 325 - Global Perspectives in PRTM
  • PRTM 460 - Leisure Across the Lifespan
  • PRTM 801 - Philosophy of Leisure
  • PRTM 825 - Leisure in a Diverse Society