Leo (Lee) Gugerty / Psychology / Clemson

 Research (Publications)


  • Cognitive Psych, Psych 833 & 333
  • Human Factors, Psych 835 & 435
  • Advanced Experimental Psych (ie, Research Methods), Psych 310

 Service & Admin

  • Coordinator of Human Factors graduate program in the Psychology Department
  • On Editorial Board of Human Factors


 8.1.2013 Tech support requires diagnosing user & problem

Allen, J., Gugerty, L., Muth, E. & Scisco, J. (2013) Remote Technical Support Requires Diagnosing the End-User (Customer) as Well as the Computer. Human Computer Interaction. 28(5), 442-477. (PDF)
Abstract A cognitive task analysis (CTA) and a laboratory study examined the cognitive and communicative processes technical support workers use when providing remote, Internet-based technical support, with a particular focus on the role of the end user who is receiving technical support. The results of the CTA include procedural diagrams illustrating the technical support process and the concept of support workers doing “user diagnosis.” The laboratory study examined how two characteristics of technical support end users, their emotional state and the level of detail in their problem descriptions, affected stress levels and performance of technical support personnel.When end users were vague and angry, technical support workers’ problem solving time and performance ratings were significantly worse.

 3.21.2012 Navigation affected by interfaces & individuals

William Rodes & L. Gugerty, Human Factors, 2012. Effects of Electronic Map Displays and Individual Differences in Ability on Navigation Performance
Abstract Track-up electronic maps improved performance at navigation tasks including making cardinal direction judgments and following a route, while north-up electronic maps improved long-term learning of the mapped region. Individual differences in spatial ability account for a large amount of variability in navigation performance after controlling for effects of map type. PDF

 3.1.2012 Improving driving safety via parallel attention

Scott McIntyre, L. Gugerty & Andrew Duchowski, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2012. Brake lamp detection in complex and dynamic environments: Recognizing limitations of visual attention and perception
Abstract Worldwide, both brake lamps and tail lamps on motor vehicles are required to be red. Previous studies have not examined the effect of this confound in a complex, high-traffic scenario in a driving simulator or on visuomotor behavior. In the first of three experiment, drivers detected brake lamps on nine lead vehicles and lane changes on two rear vehicles in a 15 min simulated night time highway drive. For all studies, tail lamp color was manipulated, resulting in two conditions: the currently mandated red tail lamps and red brake lamps vs. yellow tail lamps and red brake lamps. Compared to current rear lighting, employing yellow tail lamps with red brake lamps reduced RT, error, subjective workload, improved performance in detecting lane changes and also changed visuomotor behavior. It is suggested that the mechanism allowing better performance is pre-attentive, parallel visual processing. PDF

 1.3.2011 New ideas re situation awareness

Gugerty, L. (2011). Situation awareness in driving. In Fisher, D. L., Rizzo, M., Caird, J. K., & Lee, J. D. (Eds). Handbook of Driving Simulation for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
In a recent chapter (PDF), I focused on the component processes, both perceptual and cognitive, that make up the ability to maintain situation awareness (SA) during the real-time task of driving. The chapter also surveys methods of measuring SA, especially using driving simulators. What makes this chapter a bit different from other overviews of SA is: 1) the inclusion of processes not usually considered to be part of this construct, such as ambient vision and multitasking; and 2) the description of theoretical models for many of the component processes of SA (e.g., Wickens SEEV model). The chapter suggests that maintaining SA involves processes of focal vision (including attention allocation within tasks, event comprehension, and task management across concurrent tasks) as well as ambient vision processes (including attention capture by sudden peripheral events). Situation awareness is a complex process that requires assessment by a variety of online and offline measures. Research using these measures shows that most of the above components of SA can be trained, improve with driving experience, and correlate positively with safe driving.

 7.01.2010 Eye tracking measures of situation awareness

Kristin Moore & L. Gugerty, Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Proceedings, 2010. Development of a novel measure of situation awareness: The case for eye movement analysis.
Abstract Situation awareness is a measure of an individual's knowledge and understanding of the current and expected future states of a situation. While there are numerous options for SA measurement, none are currently suitable in dynamic, uncontrolled environments. The current research explored the relationship between direct measures of SA and eye tracking measures as a first step in the development of an unobtrusive SA measure to be used in environments not suited for current SA measures. Results showed that the more individuals fixated on an important aircraft in an air traffic control task, the higher their SA for that aircraft. The study also provided evidence that the way operators allocate attention (i.e., distributed widely or narrowly) affects their SA, as well as their task performance. The results indicate that eye tracking may be a viable option for measuring SA in environments not conducive to current direct SA measurement techniques.

 4.15.2008 Training for AED use

An article (Human Factors, 2008 PDF) co-authored with Blake Mitchell and Eric Muth focused on training for automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). Here is the abstract.
Objective: This study examined the effect of three types of brief training on the use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) designed for in-home use by 43 lay users. Method: During training, the exposure training group read an article about AEDs that provided no information on how to operate them; the low training group inspected the AED and read the operating instructions in the paper-based manual, but was not allowed to use the device; and the high training group watched a training video and performed a mock resuscitation using the AED, but no manikin. All participants returned two weeks later and performed a surprise simulated AED resuscitation on a manikin. Results: Most participants in each training group met criteria of minimally acceptable performance during the simulated manikin resuscitation, as measured by time to first shock, pad placement accuracy and safety check performance. Compared to exposure training, the low and high training had a beneficial effect on time to first shock and errors.

 2.5.2008 Knowledge guides internet health searching

In "An exploratory study of the effect of domain knowledge on internet search behavior: The case of diabetes" (Gugerty, L., Billman, D., Elliott, A. & Pirolli, P. (2007). Proceedings the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Conference. PDF) we investigated how domain knowledge, about diabetes, influences the process and outcome of answering complex questions using the internet. The internet has become an important source of knowledge for people seeking health information about diseases. People with chronic diseases often need a great deal of information for self-management and have emerging needs for new information. Participants in our exploratory study were 8 people with diabetes and 2 without. An initial interview identified individuals with high versus low knowledge about diabetes. We then traced the activity of individuals answering questions about diabetes. Questions were designed to be difficult, require reasoning, and lack a single, integrated source with a packaged answer. Here we report on case analyses of one high and one low knowledge individual. Domain knowledge influenced activity in multiple respects, including initial orienting to the task and supplying facts needed in inference chains.