NPIP certification is for breeder flocks. If you have a breeding flock, then the NPIP program is for you. If you move birds or hatching eggs across state lines, then being a NPIP Clean certified flock is required.
Please read everything below. If after reading you are still interested for your breeder flock to become NPIP certified for Pullorum Clean status - please contact Dr. Helm (firstname.lastname@example.org, desk 803-726-7802, cell 803-260-6442) to set up an appointment to begin the process (Pullorum testing and site inspection).
If you also show or move birds or hatching eggs to North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Virginia, Texas, Pennsylvania, besides being NPIP Pullorum Clean, your flock will also need to become NPIP Avian Influenza (AI) Clean, since these states have avian influenza testing requirements.
If you are moving hatching eggs, babies, or older birds across state lines (whether to live there or just to go to a show), then it is required to become NPIP Certified in order to meet the other state’s entry requirements and the new Federal Interstate Movement Law requirements. Birds either coming into SC or leaving SC need to be tested negative for 2 salmonella diseases of poultry called Pullorum and Typhoid, birds need to be individually identified (State approved leg/wing bands), and need official movement documents.
As a NPIP Certified participant, your breeder birds will need to be tested for Pullorum-Typhoid every year and your premises inspected every year. The inspection is to make sure that your bird pens and buildings for brooding or holding the incubators/hatchers are clean and orderly without storage items or garbage lying around, rats and mice are not running around, and the pens and machines are cleaned out routinely; and to be sure you are maintaining the required NPIP records. NPIP is about disease monitoring, sanitation, and record keeping.
SC residents, over 18 years of age, can become a SC private NPIP tester by taking our NPIP testers course. I send out NPIP Tester's class announcements on my SC Small Flock email list.
NPIP Breeder Program Requirements
1. Testing requirements for NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean:
a. For the first time to qualify your premises as Pullorum-Typhoid Clean, 100% (all poultry-type birds on the farm, breeders and others, but not pigeons or doves) need to be tested negative. A private tester will Pullorum test the birds (for turkeys to be Pullorum Clean breeders there is a separate lab test).
b. After that the following birds are Pullorum tested during the annual retesting: (1) breeders and replacement breeders, (2) birds used to sit on eggs, (3) birds used to brood babies, (4) any show birds, and (5) and other birds on the farm that have contact with these tested birds (beak to beak touching). A private SC NPIP Licensed Tester can do the annual retesting of the flock.
2. Testing requirements for NPIP Avian Influenza (AI) Clean:
a. Some states (GA, NC, FL, VA, PA, TX, etc.) require that poultry entering their state are individually tested negative for AI or come from breeder flocks that are classified as NPIP AI Clean.
b. Flocks must also be NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean.
c. Flocks will be sampled every 6 months for AI. The maximum number of birds sampled is up to 30 birds per species type (chickens, turkeys, guineas, etc.).
d. AI samples (throat swabs) are collected by a Clemson Livestock Inspector and submitted to the Clemson Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for PCR testing. There is a fee for this test, $35.00 for every 11 birds (1 PCR test). The owner pays, at minimum, for the 2 PCR tests ($70.00) every 6 months -- sometimes there is USDA grant funding to help pay for the additional testing required.
3. Individual Official Identification requirements:
a. All birds tested for Pullorum and/or AI must be identified with an Official NPIP State band (leg or wing band, no matter which State it is). Babies too small in size to hold a band at the time of testing can be banded later.
b. All birds crossing state lines for any reason (interstate movement for sale, show, etc.) must be identified with an Official NPIP State band (leg or wing band, no matter which State it is). Babies too small in size to hold a band at the time of movement are excluded. Band numbers will be recorded on an Official Movement Document.
c. NPIP flock owners can buy the required SC NPIP bands from the SC NPIP Office (order SCNPIP bands).
4. Inspection requirements:
a. A State Tester will do an annual NPIP inspection on the flock, bird housing, hatchery room and records.
b. Poultry equipment, poultry houses/pens and the land in the immediate vicinity shall be kept in sanitary condition. The participating flock (annually tested birds), their eggs and all equipment used in connection with the tested flock shall be separated from other non-certified birds (no beak-to-beak touching) – or all birds in contact will be Pullorum tested every year too.
c. All flocks shall consist of healthy, normal individuals, characteristic of the breed, variety, cross or other combination, which they are stated to represent.
d. Hatcheries, including brooder rooms, shall be kept in sanitary condition: (1) Entire hatchery shall be shall be kept in a neat, orderly condition and free from accumulated dust; (2) Incubator walls, floors and trays shall be kept free from debris, such as broken eggs and eggshells; (3) Hatchers and trays shall be cleaned and disinfected after each hatch. Hatchery residue (eggshells, pips, etc.) shall be disposed of promptly and in a manner satisfactory to the SC NPIP State Inspector; (4) Tops of incubators and hatchers shall be kept clean (not used for storage); (5) No birds or other animals are allowed in the incubator/hatcher rooms (no birds held or brooded in the same room as the machines).
e. All poultry offered for sale shall be normal and typical of the breed, variety or cross. Hatching eggs shall be sound in shell and typical for the breed, variety or cross.
f. Any unused NPIP 9-3 Movement forms and/or unused NPIP bands will be inventoried.
a. The farm and breeding flock will be registered with the NPIP National Office to receive a NPIP Flock Number and listed in the national directory.
b. The farm will be given an Official Premises ID number with Clemson University Livestock Poultry Health.
6. New birds or hatching eggs added to the farm from an outside source:
a. Any hatching eggs added to the farm from another source (future breeders or fun birds) must come from a current NPIP farm.
b. Any birds added to the farm from another source (future breeders or fun birds) must come from a current NPIP farm or Pullorum tested negative before bringing onto farm and mixing with Pullorum negative flock. A private licensed SC NPIP tester can do this testing.
c. Find current NPIP flocks in the national NPIP Directory, look under each state with an “E” next to their NPIP Flock Number:
d. Proof of Pullorum-Typhoid Clean status or testing must be kept as records and available to show at the annual inspection.
e. Any out-of-state birds added to the farm must also have copies of the official movement document (NPIP 9-3 movement form or SC Record of Interstate Movement form).
7. Interstate Movement Form requirements:
a. Any hatching eggs or birds that you move across state lines for any reason (interstate movement for sale, show, etc.) must be accompanied with an official movement document, such as a Certification of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) or a NPIP 9-3 Movement form. Copies are sent along with the hatching eggs/bird and to Dr. Helm (SC NPIP State Inspector), and you keep a copy for your records. You will need to contact the state of destination for their requirements first.
b. Any hatching eggs or birds that you received from an out-of-state source must be accompanied with an official movement document, such as a Certification of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), a NPIP 9-3 Movement form, or a Record of Interstate Movement of Poultry into SC form. Copies are sent to Dr. Helm (SC NPIP State Inspector) and you keep a copy for your records.
8. Record keeping requirements:
a. Records (such as a log book) must be kept for any birds or hatching eggs entering or leaving the farm and include (1) date of movement in or out, (2) name, address, phone of person, and (3) the number and type of poultry moving in or out. Records will be subject to inspection by the SC NPIP State Inspector.
b. All NPIP records must be kept for 3 years.
9. What happens when a bird tests positive on the Pullorum-Typhoid test?
a. Pullorum-Typhoid is a Reportable Animal Disease to the State Veterinarian’s Office (where I work). These are very important Salmonella bacteria diseases of poultry and is why we have these programs to make sure that breeding flocks are and stay negative. I do want you to understand ahead of time what happens if a bird tests positive to the Pullorum-Typhoid test. Luckily these are rare events.
b. If a bird has a positive test to the field plate screening test or the lab test, the bird is called a reactor. These screening tests do not confirm the bird is or has been infected with the Salmonella Pullorum or Fowl Typhoid, it is only a screening test for antibodies (proteins) in the blood which may be past exposure to these 2 diseases. Sometimes other types of Salmonella bacteria, other diseases, or other proteins in the blood cause this test to react, what we call “false positive” reactors.
c. For any positive plate screening tests, all birds are put under a “Hold Order” so that no birds can leave the home premises until we find out if the birds have the disease or not. Blood is taken from the reactor bird(s) and a more specific lab test is performed. If the lab test is negative, then the flock is considered negative and gets the Clean certification with the passing inspection; or is allowed to continue the individual bird testing process (cross state lines, go to the fair, etc.).
d. If the lab test is positive (still a screening test), then there are 2 options at that moment: (1) the reactor bird is voluntarily released to the State Vet’s office, euthanized and the internal and reproduction organs are cultured looking for Salmonella pullorum or Salmonella (“typhoid”) bacteria. If the cultures are negative, then the Hold Order is released and the flock is certified as Clean or negative. (2) The 2nd option at this moment is to wait 30 days under Quarantine and redo the lab blood test—this is in case it is not Pullorum-Typhoid, but something else causing the reaction, and giving the bird extra time to clear the non-Pullorum/Typhoid proteins out of the blood. If the 2nd lab blood test is positive again, then the reactor bird is voluntarily released to the State Vet’s office, brought to the lab to be euthanized and sampled for internal organ/reproduction salmonella cultures.
e. If the salmonella culture lab test is negative, then the flock is considered negative and gets the Clean certification with the passing inspection; and the Hold Order is released.
f. If the cultures grow Salmonella Pullorum or Typhoid bacteria, then that is the confirmation test. A Quarantine Order is placed on the premises and testing of all of the birds on the premises will continue every 30 days until all birds test negative for 3 monthly tests in a row or all birds are voluntarily depopulated, it depends on the situation. We must be sure that the infected birds or contaminated equipment did not spread it to the other birds in the flock or to other farms.
g. I do not mean to scare you away, but want you to be aware of the process. I have been working here since 1996, and we do get some false positive plate screening reactors every year. Most of these test negative on the lab blood test. Only about 7 cases had a positive lab blood test and had their birds euthanized and cultured for salmonella at the lab. All but 1 flock were negative on the culture. So luckily in South Carolina, Pullorum-Typhoid is not a common disease – BUT we need to continue to look for it.
10. What happens when a bird tests positive on the Avian Influenza test?
a. Avian Influenza is a Reportable Animal Disease to the State Veterinarian’s Office.
b. If a bird has a positive PCR oropharyngeal swab test (which looks for current infection – actual genetic pieces of the virus) – further testing must be done to confirm this test.
c. All birds are put under a “Quarantine Order” so that no birds can leave the home premises until we find out if the birds have the disease or not. More blood and swabs may be collected from other birds.
d. The positive PCR tests are sent to the USDA Laboratory in Ames, IA. USDA will confirm the test – if it is AI positive or negative – and they will do further testing to determine what type of AI it is (H7N2, H5N2, etc.) and if it is Low-Path (mild version) or High-Path (severe form) of AI.
e. If USDA cannot confirm the tests are positive for AI, the Hold Order is released.
f. If USDA confirms the tests are positive for AI – then it depends on the subtype of the AI virus infection, if it is Low-Path or High-Path, and if the flock is actively infected with AI or had a previous infection in the past. Essentially it is on a case-by-case basis on the outcome of the flock, whether it will be depopulated or not.