The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) are promulgated under the Export Administration Act as authorized under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. These regulations are administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) within the U.S. Department of Commerce and control access to dual-use commodities, software and technology. The complete EAR can be found on the BIS website at http://www.bis.doc.gov/index.htm.
- What are "dual-use" commodities, software and technology? Dual-use items and information which have a predominantly commercial use but also have military applications. Dual-use items controlled under the EAR can be found on the Commerce Control List (CCL).
The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) are promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act. These regulations are administered by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) within the U.S. Department of State and control access to defense articles and services. The ITAR can be found on the DDTC website at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov/index.html.
- What are defense articles? These are any items or technical data included in the U.S. Munitions List (USML) or later determined to be appropriately placed on the USML because they were “specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted, or modified for a military application” and do not have predominant civil applications and a performance equivalent to an article or service used for civil applications.
The Office of Foreign Assets Controls (OFAC) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. These regulations can be found on the OFAC website at http://www.treasury.gov/about/organizational-structure/offices/Pages/Office-of-Foreign-Assets-Control.aspx