A fundamental objective of any biosafety program is the containment of potentially harmful biological agents. The term “containment” is used in describing safe methods, facilities and equipment for managing infectious materials in the laboratory environment where they are being handled or maintained. The purpose of containment is to reduce or eliminate exposure of laboratory workers, other persons, and the outside environment to potentially hazardous agents. The most important element of containment is strict adherence to standard microbiological practices and techniques. Knowledge of standard microbiological practices and techniques is gained through a combination of training and experience.
Appropriate facility design and engineering features, safety equipment, and management practices must supplement laboratory safety practices and techniques. Safety equipment includes biological safety cabinets (BSCs), enclosed containers, and other engineering controls designed to remove or minimize exposures to hazardous biological materials. The BSC is the primary barrier used to provide containment of infectious droplets or aerosols generated by many microbiological procedures. BSCs are discussed in Appendix A. An example of another primary barrier is the safety centrifuge cup, an enclosed container designed to prevent aerosols from being released during centrifugation. To minimize aerosol hazards, containment controls such as BSCs or centrifuge cups must be used when handling infectious agents.
Safety equipment also may include items for personal protection, such as gloves, coats, gowns, shoe covers, boots, respirators, face shields, safety glasses, or goggles. Personal protective equipment is often used in combination with BSCs and other devices that contain the agents, animals, or materials being handled. In some situations in which it is impractical to work in BSCs, personal protective equipment may form the primary barrier between personnel and the infectious materials. Examples include certain animal studies, animal necropsy, agent production activities, and activities relating to maintenance, service, or support of the laboratory facility.
The design and construction of the facility provides a secondary barrier to protect persons outside the laboratory. PI’s are responsible for providing facilities commensurate with the laboratory’s function and the recommended biosafety level for the agents being manipulated. The recommended secondary barrier(s) will depend upon the risk of transmission of specific agents. For example, the exposure risks for most laboratory work in BSL-1 and BSL-2 facilities will be direct contact with the agents, or inadvertent contact exposures through contaminated work environments. Secondary barriers in these laboratories may include separation of the laboratory work area from public access, availability of a decontamination facility (e.g., autoclave), and hand washing facilities.