College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities

Research and Scholarship

The Architecture + Health program is dedicated to the research that informs and enhances our designs.  In addition to the design studio, students and professors work to keep architectural research as an important part of the overarching program. Topics of Research include:  Publications Books | Sponsored Projects

Publications 

1. Allison, D. (2007) Hospital as City, Health Facilities Management.

2. Verderber, S. “Emergency Housing in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: An Assessment of the FEMA Travel Trailer Program,” Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 23:4, 2008, pp. 367-381.

3. Verderber, S., Fauerbach, J. and Walter, B. “On the Value of Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability in Health Administration Education,” The Journal of Health Administration Education, 26:3, 2008, pp. 248-68.

4. Verderber, S. “A Hospice for the 21st Century.” Urbanism and Architecture (China), 46:7, 2008, pp. 28-30 (published in Chinese).

5. Verderber, S. “Evidence-based Design for Healthcare in Post-Katrina New Orleans: Current Dilemmas,” Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1:2, Winter 2008, pp. 71-79.

6. Battisto, D. and Allison, D. (2008). A Hospital Patient Room Prototype: Bridging Design and Research. AIA Academy of Architecture for Health Journal. 11th edition.

7. Allison, D. (2009) “Single Bed Hospital Rooms in the US: Design Issues and Trends,” Journal of the Japan Institute of Healthcare Architecture, [Japan] pp 4-7, 1/2009.

8. Verderber, S. “Preventing Chronic Disease Among the Aged: A Call for Evidence-based Design Research,” Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 2:3, Spring 2009, pp. 71-83.

9. Verderber, S., Presier, W. and Battisto, D. “Assessment of Health Center Performance: Toward the Development of Design Guidelines,” International Journal of Architectural Research, 3:3, 2009, pp. 21-44.

10.  Fink, N., Pak, R. And Battisto, D. (2009). “Prospective memory in the nursing environment: Effects of type of prospective task and prospective load.” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting.  San Antonio, TX: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

11. Vincent, E. Battisto, D. and Grimes, L. (2009) The Effects of Presence and Influence in Nature Images in a Simulated Hospital Patient Room, Health Environments Research & Design Journal Special Issue.

12. Fink, N., Pak, R. and Battisto, D. (2009) Developing a Usability Evaluation Tool to Assess the Patient Room Bathroom, Health Environments Research & Design Journal Special Issue.

13. Allison, D. (2009) Graduate Studies in Architecture + Health at Clemson University. Urbanism and Architecture [China], 7.2009 No58 pp 31-34.

14. Allison, D (2009). Single Bed Hospital Rooms in the US: Design Issues and Trends. Journal of Japan Institute of Healthcare Architecture [Japan] pp 4-7, 1/2009.

15. Verderber, S.(2010) Innovations in Hospital Architecture. London: Taylor & Francis/Spon Press. 

16. Verderber, S. “Private Inpatient Rooms and the 21st Century Hospital,” Urbanism and Architecture, (Translated to Chinese, forthcoming 2010).

17. Verderber, S., Presier, W. and Battisto, D. “Assessment of Health Center Performance: Toward the Development of Design Guidelines,” International Journal of Architectural Research, 3:3, 2009, pp. 21-44.

18. Allison, D., Battisto, D., Ramsey R. (2011). Healthcare Design Conference 2010 - Clemson Architecture + Health Footprint.

19. Allison, D. (2012) Designing Hospitals and Medical Centers as Healthy Livable Urban Districts, Proceedings of the 49th International Making Cities Livable Conference, Portland Oregon, May 2012.
20. Palmer II, G., Abernathy, J., Swinton, G., Allison, D., Greenstein, J., Shappell, J., Reeves, S. (2013 approved for publication) Realizing Improved Patient Care through Human-centered Operating Room Design (RIPCHORD): A Human Factors Methodology for Observing Flow Disruptions in the Cardiothoracic Operating Room. Anesthesiology.
21. Lygum, V., Stigsdotter, U., Verder, S., & Jiang, S. (2013). Person-Nature Therapeutics in Crisis Shelters for Victims of Domestic Violence: A Review. EDRA44 Proceedings, Providence, Rhode Island, May 2013.
22. Verderber, S. Community Health Centers for the Medically Underserved: An American Case Study. (2013). Urbanism and Architecture, (11) 001. (Published in Chinese, Translated by Jiang, S., Proofed by Xiao, Y. & Jiang, Y.)
23. Verderber, S., Jiang, S., Hughes, G., Xiao, Y. (2014 approved for publication) The Evolving Role of Evidence-based Research in Healthcare Facility Design Competitions. Frontiers of Architectural Research: Special Issue on Healthcare.
24. Jiang, S. (2014 approved for publication). Therapeutic Landscapes and Healing Gardens:  A Review of Chinese Literature in Relation to the Studies in Western Countries. Frontiers of Architectural Research: Special Issue on Healthcare.

 

Books

Sprawling Cities and Our Endangered Public Health by Stephen Verderber

Sprawling Cities and Our Endangered Public HealthSprawl is an unsustainable pattern of growth that threatens to undermine the health of communities globally. It has been a dominant mid-to-late twentieth century growth pattern in developed countries and in the twenty-first century has shown widespread signs of proliferation in India, China, and other growing countries. The World Health Organization cites sprawl for its serious adverse public health consequences for humans and ecological habitats. The many adverse impacts of sprawl on the health of individuals, communities, and biological ecosystems are well documented. Architects have been rightly criticized for failing to grasp the aesthetic and functional challenge to create buildings and places that mitigate sprawl while simultaneously promoting healthier, active lifestyles in neighborhoods and communities.

Sprawling Cities and Our Endangered Public Health examines the past and present role of architecture in relation to the public health consequences of unmitigated sprawl and the ways in which it threatens our future. Topics examined include the role of twentieth century theories of architecture and urbanism and their public health ramifications, examples of current unsustainable practices, design considerations for the creation of health-promoting architecture and landscape urbanism, a critique of recent case studies of sustainable alternatives to unchecked sprawl, and prognostications for the future.

Architects, public health professionals, landscape architects, town planners, and a broad range of policy specialists will be able to apply the methods and tools presented here to counter unmitigated sprawl and to create architecture that promotes active, healthier lifestyles. Stephen Verderber is an internationally respected evidence-based researcher/practitioner/educator in the emerging, interdisciplinary field of architecture, health, and society. This, his latest book on the interactions between our buildings, our cities and our health, is an invaluable reference source for everyone concerned with sustainable architecture and landscape urbanism.

 

Innovations in Hospital Architecture by Stephen Verderber

hospitalarch

This indispensable reference book captures key recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of sustainable hospital architecture. Today’s architects must provide hospitals which enable high quality care for diverse patient populations in carbon neutral care settings, and this book succinctly considers what needs to be done in order to meet that challenge. The contemporary hospital is viewed in the context of global climate change, the planet’s diminishing natural resources and the spiralling cost of operating healthcare facilities.

Stephen Verderber considers the future of the hospital, and supplies a compendium of 100 planning and design considerations for the building type. The book includes twenty-eight case studies of built and unbuilt hospitals from around the world. These are grouped into five types - autonomous community based hospitals, children’s hospitals, rehabilitation and elderly care centres and hospitals, regional medical centre campuses, and visionary (unbuilt) projects.

Beautifully and extensively illustrated with many photographs, diagrams and floor plans, this is essential reading for all architects, planners, engineers, product manufacturers, clients, healthcare providers and government agencies involved in the present and future of sustainable healthcare environments.

 

Delirious New Orleans: Manifesto for an Extraordinary American City by Stephen Verderber

dnoFrom iconic neighborhoods such as the French Quarter and the Garden District to more economically modest but no less culturally vibrant areas, architecture is a key element that makes New Orleans an extraordinary American city. Delirious New Orleans began as a documentary project to capture the idiosyncratic vernacular architecture and artifacts--vintage mom-and-pop businesses, roadside motels, live music clubs, neon signs, wall murals, fast-food joints, and so on--that helped give the city's various neighborhoods their unique character. But because so many of these places and artifacts were devastated by Hurricane Katrina, Delirious New Orleans has become both a historical record of what existed in the past and a blueprint for what must be rebuilt and restored to retain the city's unique multicultural landscape. Stephen Verderber starts with the premise that New Orleans's often-overlooked neighborhoods imbue the city with deep authenticity as a place. He opens Delirious New Orleans with a photo-essay that vividly presents this vernacular architecture and its artifacts, both before Katrina and in its immediate aftermath. In the following sections of the book, which are also heavily illustrated, Verderber takes us on a tour of the city's commercial vernacular architecture, as well as the expressive folk architecture of its African American neighborhoods. He discusses how the built environment was profoundly shaped by New Orleans's history of race and class inequities and political maneuvering, along with its peculiar, below-sea-level geography. Verderber also considers the aftermath of Katrina and the armada of faceless FEMA trailers that have, at least temporarily and by default, transformed this urban landscape.

 

Innovations in Hospice Architecture by Stephen Verderber and Ben J. Refuerzo

hospicearchProviding much-needed focus on hospice projects in the context of unprecedented rates of societal ageing, this new reference book presents an overview of major recent developments in this rapidly evolving building type. The authors present an overview of the historical origins of the contemporary hospice and the diverse variations on the basic premise of hospice care, and offer a series of case studies of exemplary hospices. 

The most innovative work in this area over the past decade has been in Japan, the US, Canada and the UK, and the authors describe and analyze examples both as individual projects and as comparable yet differing approaches. Hospice Architecture will be essential reading for anyone involved in the planning, design and construction of hospices.

 

 

 

Healthcare Architecture in an Era of Radical Transformation by Stephen Verderber and David Fine

HAiaEoRTIn the 1960s and 1970s large, high-technology, in-patient oriented hospitals reflected the central role of such facilities in an expanding healthcare system. But hospital architecture and the healthcare system have vastly changed since then, in profound and unpredicted ways. This book explores for the first time how and why acute care hospitals and the often related psychiatric facilities, retirement communities, and community clinics have been transformed during the final decades of the twentieth century. The authors also consider utopian visions of unbuilt work and look ahead to the possible healthcare landscape of the future: 'health villages', home-based care for the ageing and aged population, and cyberclinics and virtual hospitals. 

 

 

 

Compassion in Architecture: Evidence-based Design for Health in Louisiana by Stephen Verderber

compassionThe element of passion in a work of architecture, usually centered on formal composition, materials, and siting, tends to obscure serious critical attention accorded to a building's lived qualities and too often ignores a building's social meaning or compassionate intent. "Compassion in Architecture: Evidence-based Design for Health in Louisiana" represents an approach that reconciles such contradictory concerns in architecture. It is a call for a new era of social advocacy in architectural design, one that truly incorporates the formal, experiential, and human aspects of architecture.

The discussion centers on a method for improving treatment settings for underrepresented minority populations and medically underserved patients throughout Louisiana. The evidence-based research and design (EBR&D) process is applied to the reinvention of Louisiana's network of community care clinics and public health support facilities.

Author Stephen Verderber spent over a decade compiling information for this book, which contains several first person narratives and eight case studies. Combined with his architect's eye for a successful physical structure, the personal stories and examples reveal underlying broader social, political, and cultural dimensions and reinforce the presentation of a lexicon of generative planning and design principles and guidelines.

The research and design work is centered on the importance of compassionate architecture for community health in the civic realm, and the enduring significance of places for health care in a community. The reader is carefully taken through each step in the process, from project inception to completion and post-occupancy assessment, in what is likely the longest continuously running evidence-based research and design initiative to date.

More than just a call to architectural arms, "Compassion in Architecture" is a detailed analysis of what components are necessary and vital to a community's public health facility. Verderber utilizes numerous illustrations, diagrams, and charts to support his text, making this study all the more informative.

 

Sponsored Projects

Research Contract: Patient Room Prototype Project [2006-9]
Sponsor: Spartanburg Regional Health System
Collaborator: Carleton University School of Industrial Design

Task1: Lead and interdisciplinary effort to conceive and develop a prototype patient room for SRHS
Task 2: Build an initial mock-up at Clemson and evaluate it
Task 3: Review and revise elements of the prototype as appropriate based on evaluation  

Research Contract: Analyzing Nursing Tasks in Acute Care Settings [2007]
Sponsor: Spartanburg Regional Health System

Research Sub-Contract: Patient Room of the Future Prototype – Phase I [2007-9]
Sponsor: DoD through SRHS/NXT
Involving four research tasks as part of the DoD “Hospital for the Future” Program

Task 1: Physical Construction and Virtual Model of the Patient Room Prototype
Task 2:  Evaluate Patient Headwall and Bathroom Design Concept in the Patient Room Prototype
Task 3: Investigate the Impact of Nature Views on Health.
Task 4: Investigate New, Emerging and Advanced Materials/Technologies for the Patient Room

Research Sub-Contract: Patient Room of the Future Prototype – Phase II [2008-10]
Sponsor: DoD through NXT
Involving five research tasks as part of the DoD “Hospital for the Future” Program

Task 1: Integrated Technology Solutions to Support Healthcare Delivery
Task 2: Assess Headwall Design Performance in the Village at Pelham Hospital
Task 3: Assess Lighting Design Concepts for the Patient Room Prototype
Task 4: Impact of Virtual Nature Images on Stress & Pain in Hospitalized Patients
Task 5: Post Occupancy Evaluation Tool for Assessing the Built Environment

Research Sub-Contract: Assist DoD MHS in developing tools for implementing and evaluating World Class and Evidence Based Health Facilities Design [2009-10]
Sponsor: DoD Primary Contract to Noblis and Subcontract through NXT

Task 1: Develop Case Study Instrument and use on 3-5 best practice healthcare facilities 
Task 2: Develop Design Guidelines for implementing World Class and EBD strategies
Task 3: Develop a design review instrument for evaluating MHS projects in progress
Task 4: Assist MHS/Noblis in development of Medical Facility Process and Navigational Model

Research Sub-Contract: Assist DoD MHS in developing tools for implementing and evaluating World Class and Evidence Based Health Facilities Design [2010-11]
Sponsor: DoD Primary Contract to Noblis and Subcontract through NXT 

Task 1: Assist in refinement of a World Class toolkit and Checklist 
Task 2: Develop metrics for World Class Mandatory Strategies
Task 3: Develop a POE tool and implement it in a MHS facility
Task 4: Assist MHS/Noblis in review of DoD Planning Criteria