Lowell

  Early Textile Centers
map
Waltham
power loom
PEM photo--power loom, Slater Mill NHS

PEM photo of image at Lowell NHP
lowell
Lowell
PEM photo--Lowell Dam
dam
Lowell population


1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870
200 6,000
33,000
41,000


PEM photo of image at Lowell NHP
women workers
The Lowell labor system
boarding housePEM photo--Lowell boarding house
bell time
 Winslow Homer: Bell Time

Immigrant workers
Percentage of Lowell workers who were immigrants:
1845 1850 1860
8% 33% 60%
total immigration
 immigration to the U.S>
woman schoolteacher
 1829 schooteacher


A few textile mills were built before the Civil War, for example in Graniteville
child workers
 Child workers, textile mill. Photo by Lewis Hine
After the civil war there was a lot of chaos, but when things settled down many townspeople saw mills as the new way to make money
girl spinner
Worker in Carolina Mill, Louise Hine, 1908
doffer
 The Doffer (Hine?)
house in Newry
Mill House in Newry, Oconee County (PEM photo)
unloading cotton bales
 African American workers unload cotton bales


PEM photo--Lowell Turbine
turbine

Lowell technological innovation: James Bicheno Francis (1815-1892)

lowell machine shop
 Lowell

this page written and copyright  © Pamela E. Mack
 History 323
last updated 1/26/2005