AGGRESSION- any physical, hostile behavior between conspecifics that is intended to cause harm, injury, or intimidation
AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR- includes the fight or flight response and any aggressive or passive behaviors among conspecifics
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - procedure that involves the collection of semen from a male conspecific and its insemination in the female via a tool
AVOIDANCE- maintaining a certain distance from a dominant animal; immediately deferring when confronted.
BOAR- a male pig or Hog
CANNIBALISM- usually involves injury followed by the consumption of blood and tissues of conspecifics
CONSPECIFICS- members of the same species
COPULATION- sexual intercourse
COURTSHIP- pre-copulatory behavior, usually by the male, that tests the female receptivity toward mating; initiates sexual behavior
DAM- general term for mother
DOMINANCE- the act of establishing social status within a group of animals; often times the result of aggression directed over access to recourses, the fact or state of being dominant or the position of highest authority in a social hierarchy
ESTRUS- period of the estrous cycle in which behavioral changes occur in female animals due to the release of the hormones, primarily estrogen; females are receptive of males and will standing to be mounted. Secondary signs include: swollen vulva, changes in vocalizations, nervous activity, loss of appetite, increased vaginal mucous
FARROW- term for swine parturition
FEATHER PECKING- characterized by the pecking at and/or pulling out of the feathers of conspecifics
GILT- female pig that has never farrowed
GROOMING- relates to taking care of the external surface of the body; functions to remove dirt, parasites, or other matter from the skin, fur, feathers, etc.; it is often performed as a social act. It is used for the maintenance of feathers or fur for protection, insulation, and flight, while keeping the outer body surface in good condition
HEAT- period of sexual excitement by female animals; also see ESTRUS
HIERARCHY- position in the chain of command that is established by aggression and maintained through ritualized dominance. Though not all animals in the hierarchy will fight one another, just those that are close in rank to attempt to overtake a rival
JUVENILE BEHAVIOR- The juvenile phase is the time between the neonatal and pubertal stages. Animals spend this time learning and perfecting behaviors that will be beneficial in their adult lives. Activities during this time slowly shift from maternal reliance to establishing a more independent role in the herd.
KID- a young goat
LORDOSIS- primary sign of estrus in pigs; the physical immobilization of the female by locking her joints to prepare for mounting, a reflex observed only in estrus
MATERNAL BONDING- the recognition and attachment that is present between mother and calf
MILK LETDOWN- reflex in which the stimuli causes milk production
NEONATE- refers to any newborn. An infant in human terms
NEOPHOBIA- “neos” new, “phobos” fear- fear of new things
PARTURITION- act of giving birth, occurs in three stages
Stage 1- Characterized by uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The first stage is complete when the fetus has rotated (cow, mare, and ewe) and first enters the cervical canal.
Stage 2- The first stage ends with the fetus in the cervical canal, the second stage begins from there and includes the first visual landmark, the water breaking, and the subsequent birth. It ends when the lamb is on the ground.
Stage 3- Characterized by expulsion of the fetal membranes.
PHEROMONE- a chemical scent specific to conspecifics; often times initiates a physiological response
PREENING- the cleaning and realigning of parts of the feather using the beak; consists of cleaning the feathers of dust and dirt, fluffing and untangling the down feather, and lubricating all feathers
PRECOPULATORY STAGE- stage of sexual behavior that includes finding a mate, courtship of that mate, erection, and penile protrusion
COPULATORY STAGE – stage of sexual behavior that includes mounting, intromission, and ejaculation
POSTCOPULATORY STAGE – stage of sexual behavior that includes dismounting, refractoriness, and memory of the experience (as positive or negative).
RITUALIZED DOMINANCE- passive threats (such as a lowered head to warn of a head butt, or a vocalization) after initial dominance has been established; used to avoid constant aggression to reestablish dominance. This is an evolutionary mechanism to conserve energy that would be wasted fighting.
SOCIAL GROOMING- fundamental social activity which serves to strengthen the attachment between parent and offspring, maintain a degree of hygiene, and form social bonds and trust among conspecifics
SOW- a mature female pig