Insects Affecting Animals

l-1 Horses have been continually tormented by insects. Around 1900, body nets made of porous material were used to give them protection. They were spread across horses' backs to protect against horseflies, stable flies, and other biting pests. Fringe nets were fitted across their noses to prevent botflies from laying their eggs on the horses' lips.
In 1906 a campaign was launched to eradicate the cattle tick and, with it, tick fever. This farmer is applying an arsenical spray with an early model knapsack sprayer. Tick fever, a disease that once cost millions of dollars in livestock losses annually, has been all but eradicated from the United States. l-2
l-3 The eradication of cattle ticks has been due to a well-organized plan of cattle quarantine and regular dipping of all cattle in vats containing arsenicals.
When cattle are attacked by insects, they react in several ways: they stamp, run, stand in water, bunch up, and in other ways try to escape the insects' bites. The animals lose blood, and they are fighting insects when they should be feeding. Livestock insect pests cost this country about $500 million a year in wasted feed, lower production of meat and milk, and damaged hides. This farmer is spraying his livestock for horn fly control. l-4

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