Peer Reviewed Publications

Yuan, N.N., S. N. Chen, L.X. Zhai, G. Schnabel, L.F. Yin, and C.X. Luo, 2013. Baseline sensitivity of Monilia yunnanensis to the DMI fungicides tebuconazole and triadimefon. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. In press.

Chen, F. P. X. L. Liu, and G. Schnabel 2013. Field strains of Monilinia fructicola resistant to both methyl benzimidazole carbamate and demethylase inhibitor fungicides isolates from stone fruit orchards in the eastern United States. Plant Dis. In press.

Chen, F. P., X. L. Liu, and G. Schnabel 2013. Dual resistance, investigation of boscalid resistance mechanisms, and determination of baseline sensitivity in Monilinia fructicola . Plant Dis. In press.

Grabke, A., D. Fernández-Ortuño, and G. Schnabel 2013. Fenhexamid resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry fields in the Carolinas is associated with four target gene mutations. Plant Dis. 97:271-276.

Fernández-Ortuño, D., Chen, F., and Schnabel, G. 2013. Resistance to cyprodinil and lack of fludioxonil resistance in Botrytis cinerea isolates from strawberry in North and South Carolina. Plant Dis. 97:81-85.

Chen, F. P., X. L. Liu, and G. Schnabel 2013. First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola of sweet cherry in Maryland. Plant Dis. 97:145.

Yin L-F., Hu M-J., Wang F., Kuang H., Zhang Y., et al. 2012. Frequent Gain and Loss of Introns in Fungal Cytochrome b Genes. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49096. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049096.

Li, X.P., Fernández-Ortuño, D., W. Chai, F. Wang, and G. Schnabel 2012. Identification and Prevalence of Botrytis spp. from Blackberry and Strawberry fields of the Carolinas. Plant Dis. 96:1634-1637.

Fernández-Ortuño, D. and G. Schnabel 2012. First report of thiophanate-methyl resistance in Botrytis cinerea on strawberry from South Carolina. Plant Dis. 96:1700.

Fernández-Ortuño, D., and G. Schnabel 2012. Resistance to pyraclostrobin and boscalid in Botrytis cinerea isolates from strawberry fields in the Carolinas. Plant Dis. 96:1198-1203. -60

Li, X., J. Kerrigan, and G. Schnabel 2012. Botrytis caroliniana, a new species isolated from blackberry in South Carolina. Mycologia 104:650-658.

Schnabel, G., D. Fernández-Ortuño, W. C. Bridges, and S. B. Hudson 2012. Multiyear evaluation of an orange peel oil-based spray additive for managing insect pests and brown rot of nectarine. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2012-0617-01-RS.

Fuxing, Z., P. K. Bryson, and G. Schnabel 2012. Influence of storage approaches on instability of propiconazole resistance in Monilinia fructicola. Pest Manag. Sci. 68:1003-1009.

Fernández-Ortuño, D., X. Li, F. Wang, and G. Schnabel 2012. First report of gray mold of strawberry caused by Botrytis caroliniana in North Carolina. Plant Dis. 96:914.

Williamson, M., D. Fernández-Ortuño, and G. Schnabel 2012. First report of Fusarium Wilt of strawberry caused by Fusarium oxystporum in South Carolina. Plant Dis. 96:911.

Amiri, A. and G. Schnabel 2012. Persistence of propiconazole in peach roots and efficacy of trunk infusions for Armillaria root rot control. Intern. J. Fruit Sci., 12:437-449.

Chen, F. P., J. R. Fan, T. Zhou, X. L. Liu, and G. Schnabel 2012. Baseline sensitivity of Monilinia fructicola from China to the DMI fungicide SYP-Z048 and analysis of DMI-resistant mutants. Plant Dis. 96:416-422.

Schnabel, G. P., Agudelo, G. W. Henderson, and P. A. Rollins. 2012. Above-ground root collar excavation of peach trees for Armillaria root rot management. Plant Dis. 96: 681-686. 

Jaensch, M., J. E. Frey, M. Hilber-Bodmer, G. A. L. Broggini, J. Weger, G. Schnabel, and A. Patocchi 2012. SSR marker analysis of Monilinia fructicola from Swiss apricots suggests introduction of the pathogen from neighboring countries and the United States. Plant Pathology 61:247-254.

Amiri, A., W. Chai and G. Schnabel 2011. Effect of nutrient status, pH, temperature and water potential on germination and growth of Rhizopus stolonifer and Gilbertella persicaria J. Plant Pathol. 93:603-612.-50

Schnabel, G. P. A. Rollins, and G. W. Henderson. 2012. Field Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for control of Armillaria root rot. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2011-1129-01-RS. 

Fernández-Ortuño, D., X. Li, W. Chai, and G. Schnabel 2011. First report of gray mold of strawberry caused by Botrytis cinerea in South Carolina. Plant Dis. 95:1482.

Chen, F. P., X. L. Liu, X. P. Li, and G. Schnabel 2011. First report of iprodione resistance in Botrytis cinerea on blackberry from South Carolina. Plant Dis. 95:1481-1481.

Hu, M.J., K. D. Cox, G. Schnabel, and C. X. Luo 2011. Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China. PLOS ONE 6:e24990. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024990.

Hu, M. J., C. X. Luo, A. Grabke, and G. Schnabel 2011. Selection of a suitable medium to determine sensitivity of Monilinia fructicola mycelium to SDHI fungicides. J. Phytopathol. 159:616-620.

Kalariya, H. M., G. Schnabel, C. Petri, and R. Scorza 2011. Generation and characterization of transgenic plum lines expressing gafp-1 with the bul409 promoter. HortScience 46:975-980.

Grabke, A., M. J. Hu, C. X. Luo, P. K. Bryson, and G. Schnabel 2011. First Report of Brown Rot of Apple caused by Monilinia fructicola in Germany. Plant Dis. 95:772


Liu, X., Yu, F. Schnabel, G., Wu, J., Wang, Z. and Ma, Z. 2011. Paralogous cyp51 genes in Fusarium graminearum mediate differential sensitivity to sterol demethylation inhibitors. Fungal Genet. Biol., 48:113-123.

Luo, C. X., M. J. Hua, X. Jin, L. F. Yin, P.K. Bryson, and G. Schnabel 2010. An intron in the cytochrome b gene of Monilinia fructicola mitigates the risk of resistance development to QoI fungicides. Pest Manag. Sci., 66:1308-1315.

Zhu, F. X., A. Amiri, P. K. Bryson and G. Schnabel 2010. First report of the beta tubulin E198A allele for fungicide resistance in Monilinia fructicola from South Carolina. Plant Dis. 94:1511.-40

Schnabel, G., A. Amiri, and P. Brannen 2010. Sustainable brown rot management of peaches in the southeastern United States. Outlooks of Pest Management, 21:208-211.

Blaedow, K., K. Baumgartner, K. D. Cox, and G. Schnabel 2010. Natural infection of an herbaceous host by Armillaria: a case study on Hemerocallis. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 32:351-360.

Amiri, A., P. Brannen and G. Schnabel 2010. Reduced sensitivity in Monilinia fructicola field isolates from South Carolina and Georgia to respiration inhibitor fungicides. Plant Dis. 94:737-743.

Nagel, A. K., H. Kalariya, and G. Schnabel 2010. The Gastrodia antifungal protein (GAFP-1) and its transcripts are absent from scions of chimeric-grafted plum. HortScience 45:188-192.

Amiri, A., P. Brannen and G. Schnabel 2009.Validation of the Lipbalm Tube Assay for Evaluation of Fungicide Sensitivity in Field Isolates of Monilinia fructicola. Online. Plant Health Progress, doi: 10.1094/PHP-2009-1118-01-RS.

Nyczepir, A. P., A. K. Nagel, and G. Schnabel 2009. Host status of three transgenic plum lines to Mesocriconema xenoplax. HortScience 44:1932-1935.

Amiri, A., I. J. Holb and G. Schnabel 2009. A new selective medium for the recovery and enumeration of Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena and M. laxa from stone fruit. Phytopathology 99:1199-1208.

Schnabel, G. and C. Crisosto 2008. Seasonal applications of a pyraclostrobin and boscalid mixture do not impact same-year peach fruit quality attributes. HortTechnology 18:678-684.

Amiri, A., Bussey, K. E., Riley, M. B., Schnabel, G. 2008. Propiconazole inhibits Armillaria tabescens in vitro and translocates into peach roots following trunk infusion. Plant Dis. 92:1293-1298.

Nagel, A.K., Schnabel, G., Petri, C. and Scorza, R. 2008. Generation and characterization of transgenic plum lines expressing the Gastrodia antifungal protein. HortScience 43:1514-1521.-30

Luo, C. X, Cox, K. D., Amiri, A. and Schnabel, G. 2008.  Occurrence and detection of the DMI resistance-associated, genetic element 'Mona' in Monilinia fructicola. Plant Dis. 92:1099-1103. ---Plant Disease Editor’s pick from APS Journals Online---

Holb, I. J. and Schnabel, G. 2008. A detached fruit study on the post-inoculation activity of lime sulphur against brown rot of peach (Monilinia fructicola). Australasian Plant Pathology 37:454-459.

Amiri, A., Scherm, H., Brannen, P. M., and Schnabel, G. 2008. Laboratory evaluation of three rapid, agar-based assays to assess fungicide sensitivity in Monilinia fructicola.  Plant Dis. 92:415-420. ---One of the most-read articles from APS Journals Online---

Holb, I. J. and Schnabel, G. 2008. The benefits of combining elemental sulfur with a DMI fungicide to control Monilinia fructicola isolates resistant to propiconazole. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:156-164.

Luo, C. X. and G. Schnabel 2008. Adaptation to fungicides in Monilinia fructicola isolates with different fungicide resistance phenotypes. Phytopathology 98:230-238.

Luo, C.X. and G. Schnabel 2008. The cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase gene is a demethylation inhibitor fungicide resistance determinant in Monilinia fructicola field isolates from Georgia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:359-366.

Schnabel, G., D. R. Layne and I. J. Holb 2007. Micronised and non-micronised sulphur sprays control peach scab equally well with negligible impact on fruit quality. Annals of Applied Biology 150:131-139.

Holb, I. J. and G. Schnabel 2007. Differential effect of triazoles on mycelial growth and disease measurements of Monilinia fructicola isolates with reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides. Crop Prot. 26:753-759.

Cox, D. K., K. P. Bryson, and G. Schnabel 2007. Instability of propiconazole resistance and fitness in Monilinia fructicola. Phytopathology 97:448-453.

Schnabel, G. and J. Mercier 2006. Use of a Muscodor albus pad delivery system for the management of brown rot of peach in shipping cartons. Postharvest Biology and Technology 42:121-123.-20

Schnabel, G., P. K. Bryson, and M. A. Williamson 2006. First Report of Armillaria tabescens causing Armillaria root rot of Pindo Palm in South Carolina. Plant Dis. 90:1106.
Cox, K. D., D. R. Layne, R. Scorza, and G. Schnabel 2006. Gastrodia Anti-Fungal Protein from the orchid Gastrodia elata confers disease resistance to root pathogens in transgenic tobacco. Planta 224:1373-1383.

Schnabel, G., Chai, W. and Cox, K. R. 2006. Identifying and characterizing summer diseases on ‘Babygold’ peach in South Carolina. Plant Health Progress. Doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-0301-01-RS.

Schnabel, G., J. S. Ash, and P. K. Bryson 2005. Identification and characterization of Armillaria tabescens from the southeastern United States. Mycol. Res. 109:1208-1222.

Holb, I. J. and Schnabel, G. 2005. Effect of fungicide treatments and sanitation practices on brown rot blossom blight incidence, phytotoxicity, and yield for organic sour cherry production. Plant Dis. 89:1164-1170.

Schnabel, G., K. E. Bussey, and P. K. Bryson, 2005. First Report of Armillaria gallica causing Armillaria root rot in daylily in South Carolina. Plant Dis. 89:683, 2005.

Schnabel, G., P. K. Bryson, W. C. Bridges, and P. M. Brannen 2004. Reduced sensitivity in Monilinia fructicola to propiconazole in Georgia and implications for disease management. Plant Dis. 88:1000-1004.   

Huang, H., S. N. Jeffers, D. R. Layne, and G. Schnabel 2004. AFLP analysis of Phytophthora cactorum isolates from strawberry and other hosts: Implications for identifying the primary source of inoculum. Plant Dis. 88:714-720.

Jeffers, S. N, G. Schnabel, and J. P. Smith.  2004.  First report of resistance to mefenoxam in Phytophthora cactorum in the United States and elsewhere. Plant Dis. 88:576.

Schnabel, G. and D. R. Layne 2004. Comparison of reduced-application and sulfur-based fungicide programs on scab intensity, fruit quality, and cost of disease control on peach. Plant Dis. 88:162-166. -10

Schnabel, G. and Q. Dai 2004. Heterologous expression of the 14-demethylase gene from Monilinia fructicola reduces sensitivity to some but not all DMI fungicides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 78:31-38.

Schnabel, G., Q. Dai and M. R. Paradkar 2003. Cloning and expression analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter MFABC1 gene and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from Monilinia fructicola. Pest Manag. Sci. 59:1143-1151.

Dai, Q., Z. Sun and G. Schnabel 2003. Development of spontaneous hygromycin B resistance in Monilinia fructicola and its impact on growth rate, morphology, susceptibility to demethylation inhibitor fungicides, and sporulation. Phytopathology 93:1354-1359.

Schnabel, G., and A. L. Jones 2000. The 14-demethylase gene (CYP51A1) is overexpressed in Venturia inaequalis strains resistant to myclobutanil. Phytopathology 91: 102-110.

Schnabel, G., E. Schnabel and A. L. Jones 1999. Characterization of ribosomal DNA from Venturia inaequalis and its phylogenetic relationship to rDNA from other tree fruit Venturia species. Phytopathology 89:100-108.

Schnabel, G., G. Strittmatter and G. Noga 1998. Changes in photosynthetic electron transport in potato cultivars with different field resistance after infection with Phytophthora infestans. J. Phytopathology 146:205-210.

Schnabel, G. and L. Parisi 1998. Testing new fungicides to reduce apple scab. In: Second Workshop on Pome Fruit Quality, Lenz, F. and M. M. Blanke (eds.), Acta Horticulturae p.83-88.

Schnabel, G., J. Wolter, and G. Noga 1998. The fungicidal potential of Ca-Dodecylbenzolsulfonate in grape production. Gartenbauwissenschaft 63:283-288.

Schnabel, G. and L. Parisi 1997. Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to five DMI fungicides, including fluquinconazole and to pyrimethanil. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 104:36-46.

MS and Ph.D. Theses:
Schnabel, G. 1997. “Moeglichkeiten zur Reduzierung pilzlichen Pathogenbefalls im Obst-, Gemuese- und Weinbau durch fruehe Diagnose von Wirt-Parasit-Interaktionen und durch den Einsatz spezifischer und unspezifischer Fungizide”. (engl: “Approaches to reduce plant diseases of fruits and vegetables using early detection of host pathogen interactions and site-specific and non-specific fungicides”). Ph.D.-Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Germany.

Schnabel, G. 1992. “Evaluierung der Wirkung eines neuen fungiziden Wirkstoffes gegen Botrytis cinerea Pers.” (engl: Efficacy of a new fungicide against Botrytis cinerea Pers.”. Masters Thesis, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany.