Fountains and Aeration


Circulating and aerating water in stormwater ponds provides several benefits, which may or may not be fully understood by residents in the community. These benefits are 1) oxygenation of the water and 2) mixing of water to prevent stratification. Stratification occurs when the sun heats surface waters while deeper waters remain cool. The warm and cool layers do not mix, and the bottom layers become depleted of oxygen because of organic decomposition, while the surface waters receive oxygen from the atmosphere and photosynthesis of phytoplankton. Stratification is a significant threat to fish health in small ponds because it creates a layer of oxygen-depleted water. Under the right conditions this low oxygen water can mix rapidly with the surface waters and dilute the oxygen, an event commonly referred to as a "turnover." Severe turnovers often result in fish kills because the fish "suffocate" from lack of oxygen. A properly designed circulation system can prevent stratification and turnover events. Circulation systems also can help manage nutrients in the pond by balancing the trophic state and reducing nutrients available to algae and aquatic weeds.

What causes a turnover?
Turnovers occur naturally in the fall of every year. The incremental drop in air temperature slowly decreases surface water temperature and the layers in the pond mix gradually. This gradual mixing rarely causes a fish kill. On the other hand, rapid turnover can cause a fish kill. Rapid turnovers can occur anytime during the warmer months of the year when ponds are stratified and they most often coincide with storm events or windy days. A cold rain or the blowing winds of a storm front can cause rapid mixing and result in a fish kill if the pond is stratified.

How do I prevent a turnover?

  1. Proper pond construction is important. The ratio of surface waters (epilimnion) to deep waters (hypolimnion) is a major determining factor for the frequency and severity of turnovers. Small, deep ponds often are more prone to severe turnovers because there is a larger volume of deep, low-oxygen water relative to the amount of oxygenated surface water. Broad, shallow ponds have fewer turnovers because less of the pond's volume is tied up in low oxygen deep water. Most stormwater ponds are shallow (6ft deep or less), but some are deeper. It is important to know not only the locations and depths of the deepest parts of your pond, but also the average depth of the pond.

  2. Mechanical circulation can prevent turnovers. The primary purpose of mechanical circulation is not aeration/oxygenation. Its purpose is to prevent stratification. By mixing the water, circulation systems never allow the pond to form layers, thus they never develop a low oxygen layer on the bottom. In this way a circulation system becomes an insurance investment to prevent a fish kill.

What is the best way to circulate the water?
diffusion aeratorBy far, diffuser systems circulate water most efficiently. Diffuser systems are a lot like airstones in an aquarium. They use an air compressor to pump air into the bottom of the pond. The diffuser breaks the air into tiny bubbles which expand as they rise. The rising of the bubbles pushes water and forms a current that lifts bottom water up to the surface. The resulting current mixes the entire water column and prevents stratification in the pond.

Are there other ways to circulate the water?
Yes. Water pumps such as centrifugal irrigation pumps and sump pumps can be used to push water but they must be designed correctly to work. The trick is to make sure that the pump is creating a current that mixes bottom water with surface water to prevent stratification. Irrigation pumps can be mounted on land as long as they draw water through pipes from near the bottom and shoot it over the surface to create a current. Unlike diffuser systems, which are self-cleaning, water pumps are prone to being clogged with vegetation and debris and require frequent maintenance especially when submerged plant growth is not controlled.

Will circulation systems control aquatic weeds?
No, not necessarily. It is a myth that circulations systems control aquatic weeds except for in the case of some blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Some cyanobacteria require stagnant waters to grow large blooms. Circulation systems can disrupt some cyanobacteria blooms from growing out of control. Also, in ponds that overloaded with nutrients (eutrophic) and consistently low in oxygen, circulation system may improve water chemistry and make dissolved nutrients unavailable to algae and weeds. By reducing the availability of nutrients, circulation systems potentially can slow but not prevent aquatic weed growth.

What about fountains... Do they work?
fountain with rainbowSurface fountains are the least efficient ways to aerate ponds, and they do very little to prevent stratification. They do move water, but typically fountains are floating devices that draw surface water into a shallow pump and spray it above the surface. Functionally speaking, they are circulating surface water that is already oxygenated and are not disrupting stratification. As a result, fountains are often deployed more for aesthetic reasons than functional circulation and aeration.

Do I really need a circulation system?
As mentioned previously, most stormwater ponds are shallow basins that do not develop a large volume of low oxygen water in the bottom. On the other hand, some stormwater ponds seem to have chronic problems with fish kills and need a circulation system. Also, stormwater ponds are prone to excessive weed and algae growth. If large masses of these plants are killed using aquatic herbicides, the resulting decay will deplete oxygen and may cause a fish kill. Aeration can help prevent such a fish kill. Finally, if your community has stocked the pond with grass carp or tilapia to control aquatic vegetation, having a circulation system is good protection for that investment. Circulation systems may not be necessary unless your pond develops chronic problems with fish kills or foul odors. It is important for the community to document fish kills so that they can be tracked for frequency and timing. This will help the community when deciding whether or not to invest in a circulation system.

When is the best time to install a circulation system?
It is best to install and start circulation systems before ponds become stratified, which usually means late fall through early spring (April). If your community is considering installing a system in the warm summer months, you should be careful not to cause a man-made turnover when the system is turned on. If the system is installed in the summer it must be started in short increments (10 minutes per day) over the first two weeks in order to gradually mix the water. Consult with your system manufacturer for start-up recommendations. You may need to test oxygen levels during start-up.

How large does the system need to be?
A general rule is that one diffuser unit can circulate a one to two acre pond, but sizing diffuser systems has a lot to do with surface area, depth, and the shape of the pond. Diffusers are less efficient in shallow ponds because the bubbles travel a shorter distance and create less current, so more diffusers may be needed. Also, ponds with odd shapes, bottlenecks, and narrow canals may need several diffusers to adequately circulate water in each of the sections of the pond. The same goes for fountains and water pumps. For water pumps, it is suggested that 1 horsepower of pump be used for each surface acre of pond. You should always consult with the circulation system manufacturer or professional installer for guidance on sizing and designing your system.