Fish in ponds can die from several causes. See the sections below to learn what may be causing your fish health problems.
Large fish are more susceptible to low oxygen conditions and
turnovers than small fish. When a turnover or low oxygen event occurs,
the large fish come to the surface and begin to die before the small
fish. As the low oxygen event worsens, the small fish come to the
surface and may be seen gasping and ventilating in the thin layer of
water on the surface. Low oxygen events most frequently occur just
before sunrise, because oxygen levels are at their lowest at this time
of day. Photosynthesis is not occurring because there is not sunlight,
meanwhile plankton and microbes in the water are still respiring and
consuming oxygen. As a result, oxygen levels decline through the night, and the first signs of a low oxygen event are usually seen in the early morning. By afternoon, photosynthesis may have
put enough oxygen in the water to satisfy the needs of the fish. Low oxygen is the most likely reason for fish kills
in stormwater ponds. Oxygen related fish kills are most common after dense algae blooms in the summer or in the fall when storms and windy days cause rapid "turn-overs."
How do I stop fish from dying from a low oxygen event?
Circulate the water. Circulating the water prevents the pond from stratifying (establishing a thermocline) and forming a layer of low oxygen water on the bottom. For guidance, see section on Aeration & Circulation. It must be emphasized that stormwater ponds are not designed to be ideal fish habitat. They are designed to manage stormwater, and the fact that they can harbor fish is a secondary benefit.
Small fish are more susceptible to toxins than big fish. Assuming that the pond has both small juvenile and large mature fish, a fish kill that only affects the juveniles often
indicates that some form of toxin is in the water. Toxins may result
from improper application of a pesticide, the release of an illicit
discharge (such as a solvent or automotive fluid) into the storm drain
system, or a blue-green (cyanobacteria) or red algae bloom. Cyanobacteria blooms are usually apparent because the water becomes
cloudy and green like pea soup or develops a bright green or red surface
film. (See section on Planktonic Algae)
How do I deal with toxins in my pond?
Despite the source, it is nearly impossible to remove a toxin from the water once it has been introduced. The trick to managing toxin related fish kills is to prevent the toxin from being introduced into the system mainly by informing residents about proper fertilizer and pesticide use and proper disposal of household chemicals and automotive fluids. Stormwater ponds are largely dependent on the quality of the runoff that is flowing from roads and lawns in the neighborhood. Communities should be vigilant about illicit discharges into storm drains and ponds and report egregious offenses to the local stormwater or public works department. Assuming that the mature fish did not die, the fish population should rebound after the toxin has left the system. In some cases the pond may need to be restocked.
Differential death of only one species of fish may be the
result of an environmental condition such as low oxygen or a disease or parasite. Some
fish species are more susceptible to low oxygen than others. In mild
low oxygen events, a few individuals from a single species may die
without any other fish demonstrating symptoms, but the event is usually
short-lived and the dead individuals are the largest of that species. When disease or parasites are the cause, death usually
occurs sporadically over a long period of time and affects all age
groups of the species. A few fish die one day, a few more days later,
and, over the course of a month or two, many death events may occur. Unlike low oxygen kills, death by disease or parasite usually is
accompanied by other symptoms such as bulging eyes,
discoloraion of the skin or gills, evidence of small wounds or necrosis,
external parasites clinging to the skin or gills, and so on. Fish
diseases and parasites are not normally a significant cause of death in
stormwater ponds, partially because fish rarely reach dense populations
in these systems and the water is being exchanged regularly with each
passing storm. If you are suspicious that fish in your pond are
suffering from a disease or parasite, contact your Extension office or local fisheries
office with the SC Department of Natural Resources for guidance.
SC DNR Fisheries Section Offices
Fish often fall prey
to predators and even may cannibalize their own kind. Some fish are
fortunate enough to escape attack but remain scarred from the encounter. The
most common predators that scar fish in stormwater ponds are ospreys,
seagulls, herons, egrets, cormorants and anhingas, alligators, turtles and
otters. These animals sometimes remove scales, cause scratches and
puncture wounds, and trim or shred fins as they attempt to catch fish. Fish also may develop wounds from bedding activity. This is most evident as redness or scars on the lips and bottom of the tail fin.
Springtime Bream Death
In the springtime, a peculiar type of death occurs most often with large bream. In March or early April, residents around ponds may report seeing a few large bream with large, gaping wounds on their sides, but they rarely see more than 10 fish per acre with these symptoms. This type of kill is most likely the result of cannibalism. Over the winter, food resources are limited and the fish become stressed and malnourished. This affects the largest bream the most. As temperatures begin to warm in the spring, the fish become more active and begin to peck at each other. The pecking combined with malnourishment makes the fish vulnerable to infection and necrosis, which ultimately overcomes them. This type of bream death is more common in ponds that are overcrowded. If you get reports that small numbers of large bream are dying with large wounds, it is likely due to cannibalism. This will pass as the spring progresses and will not have a significant effect on the fish population.
fish and bones on the bank is almost always an indication of an otter. Otters tend to enter and exit ponds in the same place forming a worn-down slide, and they tend to
feed on their catch in the same places on the bank. Otters are somewhat
messy eaters and leave behind scraps and bones after they have fed. They also have distinctive feces. Otters do not pose a significant threat to fish populations, except
where ponds have been stocked with triploid grass carp. Otters may
preferentially remove triploid grass carp from stormwater ponds. Otters are a protected fur-bearing species, so check state regulations before trapping them or speaking with a nuisance wildlife control operator. (See section on Beavers, Muskrats, and Otters)