Fighting Our Insect Enemies - Achievements of Professional Entomology (1854-1954)

Achievements in Insect Control - (A series of USDA black and white photographs featuring 100 years of entomology in the United States from 1854-1954. (Contains pictures on 15 separate subjects.)

Chronological History of the Development of Insecticides and Control Equipment from 1854 through 1954


(Published by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 1954 in observance of the centennial of professional entomology in the United States)

YEAR       EVENT
1854
  • Sulfur-tobacco dip used for control of sheep scab.
1860
  • Bucket spray pump first appeared.
  • light trap development started for insect control; chiefly for cotton leafworm.
1861
  • Hellebore first recommended as insecticide--for control of imported cabbage worm.
1867
  • First use of arsenical insecticide noted; use of Paris green as insecticide for Colorado potato beetle control. However, a Wisconsin farmer is said to have written Galena Gazette in 1860 that he had used Paris green and flour to kill potato beetles.
1870
  • Pyrethrum production started in California about this time.
  • First experiments conducted with crude carbolic acid emulsion as insecticide.
  • Garden engine force pump appeared on U.S. market.
  • Potash solution recommended for control of scale insects on shade trees.
  • Moist heat first demonstrated as m.eans of insect control.
1872
  • Paris green recommended for control of cankerworms and cotton leafworm.
  • Petroleum first recommended in U. S. for insect bites and stings.
1873
  • Kerosene, applied by paint brush to tree limbs, advocated for control of woolly apple aphid.
1874
  • Knapsack sprayers appear on the American market. light trap inventions for insect control purposes arrived at U.S. Patent Office by the dozens.
1875
  • Kerosene emulsion spray developed.
  • Whale oil, soap, and kerosene advocated as insecticidal spray for numerous insect pests.
1876
  • A hopper dozer invented for control of grasshoppers.
1877
  • Carbon bisulfide first recommended in U. S. as fumigant for insect control.
1878
  • Paris green discovered effective for control of codling moth.
  • London purple introduced.Used for control of Colorado potato beetle.
1879
  • Paris green spray reported effective for use in codling moth control.
  • light traps, based on incandescent lamps, started to be developed.
1880
  • Barrel spray pump first appeared on American market.
  • London purple first reported effective in codling moth control in first official experiments with arsenical insecticides. Question of poisonous residues on sprayed fruit considered at this time: concluded that quantity of poison carried over to harvest as result of spraying was insignificant--a correct reasoning at the time when few applications were required to keep pest under control.
  • lime-sulfur first used in U. S. Used for control of San Jose scale.
1881
  • Coal oil emulsion, first practical contact insecticide, recommended for control of insects affecting fruits.
  • Kerosene proved harmful to trees when applied as summer spray for control of San Jose scale.
  • Pyrethrum first advocated for control of grape leafhopper.
1882
  • White arsenic first used to control codling moth.
  • Napthalene first used for insect control purposes. used in cone form.
1885
  • Baits containing poisons (bran-arsenic) developed for insect control purposes.
  • First insecticide (arsenic) recommended for use in soil to control insects damaging plant roots.
  • Pyrethrum imports, 622,114 pounds.
1886
  • First notice of tobacco-soapsuds mixture: advocated for aphid control.
  • Pyrethrum imports, 542,987 pounds.
  • lime-sulphur-salt spray first noted: used against scale insects.
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas (HCN), one of most deadly gases known, discovered as fumigant for insect control purposes.
  • Rosin fish-oil soap first used as insecticide; for scale control in California.
1887
  • Pyrethrum imports, 597,000 pounds.
  • Cyclone spray nozzle for insecticide spraying invented.
  • Pot generation of HCN gas developed for fumigation purposes.
  • Bordeaux mixture first used in U. S.
1888
  • Pyrethrum production in California reached 52 tons.
1889
  • Fungicides for first time added to insecticides in a single spray to control insects and plant diseases in fruit production.
  • Sandblaster designed and patented for control of scale insects.
1890
  • Hydrated lime added to arsenicals to prevent burning of foliage.
1891
  • Lead arsenate insecticide first used as an insecticide. It was developed for control of gypsy moth.
  • Carbon bisulfide first tested for control of wireworms.
  • Creosote oil discovered as an ovicide for gypsy moth.
1892
  • Lead arsenate first proposed as insecticidal spray for codling moth control.
  • First published results of use of kerosene as means of mosquito control; result of accidental discovery made in 1867 following spilling of coal oil into a mosquito-infested watering trough while filling lantern.
  • First record of dinitrophenols as insecticides in Germany.
1893
  • First dusting machine used for applying insecticides.
1894
  • First "spray calendar" invented.
  • Honey bees proved killed by arsenical sprays applied to fruit trees.
  • First power sprayer (steam) invented.
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas (HCN) first used for control of insects in greenhouses.
1894
  • First gas engine powered spray pump invented. Arsenite of copper discovered as an insecticide.
1895
  • First gas engine powered spray pump invented. Arsenite of copper discovered as an insecticide.
1896
  • Sodium fluoride first used as insecticide.
  • Crude petroleum emulsions tested as insecticides.
  • Value of early-season control discovered for boll-weevil. Arsenicals were recommended for purpose.
  • First power sprayer (steam) invented.
  • Acetylene lamps started to be developed as an attractant in light traps.
1897
  • Oil of citronella used as insect repellent.
1898
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas first used for control of insects in homes.
1902
  • Grasselli Chemicals Company began manufacturing lime-sulphur insecticides.
1903
  • First insecticidal residue tolerance established. Used by British for arsenicals.
1904
  • Potassium cyanide powder advocated for control of ants.
1905
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas advocated for control of cigarette beetle.
  • Pyrethrum production in U.S. came to an end in early part of 1900's when Japanese product could be imported more cheaply.
1906
  • Commercial preparations of lime-sulphur appeared for first time.
  • Lubricating oil emulsion applied to citrus trees.
1907
  • Calcium arsenate first used as an insecticide, burned foliage severely.
  • First use of arsenate in dust form. Lead arsenate dust tested against boll weevil.
  • USDA's Pure Food and Drug Act became effective.
  • Grasselli Chemical Company started manufacturing lead arsenate insecticides.
1908
  • Bill introduced into Congress concerning insecticides and fungicides, their manufacture, labeling, and sale. It was written by USDA's Bureau of Chemistry, Division of Food and Drug.
  • Lead arsenate paste first discussed in Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter.
  • Concentrated nicotine extracts containing 40 percent of nicotine as sulfate were patented.
1909
  • Lead arsenate powder on American market.
  • First tests with 40 percent nicotine sulfate.
  • Brooklyn light trap first described for survey purposes.
1910
  • Federal Insecticide Act became effective and Insecticide and Fungicide Board established and organized. No regulatory law passed by Congress said to more nearly affect welfare of every individual in nation.
1911
  • Carbon tetrachloride recommended as substitute for carbon disulfide in fumigation of grain. From this first use of carbon tetrachloride as an insecticide came its later use as a control of hookworm. the latter discovery was acclaimed one of world's most outstanding accomplishments.
1912
  • Oil barriers recommended for control of chinch bugs.
  • Paradichlorobenzene first used in U. S. as insecticide: used for clothes moth control.
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas used for ship fumigation.
  • Eugenol derivatives first noted as entomological attractants.
  • Adhesives first used as spray "stickers".
  • First commercial production of calcium arsenate.
  • Nicotine insecticides developed for control of onion thrips.
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas adopted by U. S. Public Health Service as standard fumigant.
1914
  • Spray "gun" developed.
  • Heat developed as means for control of stored grain insects in flour mills.
  • Creosote used for chinch bug barriers.
  • Compatibility of insecticides and fungicides first presented.
  • Pyrethrum-kerosene sprays began to be produced commercially for control of household insect pests.
  • Malaria control by fluctuating water levels first observed.
1915
  • Immunity developed by insects to insecticide. It was first noted in California red scale.
  • Paradichlorobenzene first recommended in U. S. for control of clothes moth and carpet beetles.
  • Dust and chemical barriers developed for prevention of migration of chinch bugs.
  • Calcium arsenate formulated that was non-toxic to plant life.
  • liquid hydrogen cyanide first tested for insect control purposes.
1916
  • First record of carbolineum being used for control of poultry parasites.
  • Baits developed for control of Argentine ant.
  • Calcium arsenate discovered effective for control of boll weevil.
  • June beetle light trap developed.
  • Sodium fluoride discovered effective for control of lice on poultry.
  • Roentgen rays first used for insect control purposes.
  • USDA fly trap designed, methods of operating developed, and first recommended for use in fly control.
1917
  • Hydrocyanic acid gas fumigation methods developed for control of insects affecting greenhouse ornamental plants.
  • First railway car fumigation houses erected at Brownsville, Laredo, Eagle Pass, and El Paso, TX.
  • liquid hydrocyanic acid gas introduced commercially.
  • Hand bait spreader for grasshopper control invented in Kansas by T. H. Parks.
  • First use of nicotine sulfate in dry carrier for dusting purposes.
1918
  • Magnesium arsenate first used as insecticide.
  • Paradichlorobenzene discovered effective for control of peach tree borer.
  • Wettable sulphur introduced as spray.
  • Insecticidal value of derris pointed out.
  • Spray equipment perfected to develop up to 1000 pounds pressure.
  • First horse-drawn insecticide duster developed.
  • First use of airplane as means of distributing insecticidal dusts.
  • Baits containing poisons developed for control of European earwig and strawberry weevil.
  • Commercial use of calcium arsenate for boll weevil control started; 35;000 acres treated.
1919
  • Airplane used to control forest insect outbreak in Ohio with insecticidal dusts.
  • Bordeaux mixture demonstrated effective for control of potato leafhopper.
  • About 3 million pounds of calcium arsenate dust applied by farmers for control of boll weevil.
  • Grasselli Chemical Company started manufacturing calcium arsenate insecticides.
1920
  • Oil-soaked sawdust first recommended for mosquito control.
  • Ground equipment designed and developed for application of dusts for control of boll weevil.
  • Paris green first rated as mosquito larvicide.
  • About 10 million pounds of calcium arsenate dust applied by farmers for control of boll weevil.
1921
  • Lead arsenate spray developed and recommended for control of apple maggot.
  • Value of arsenic as mosquito larvicide first noted.
1922
  • Airplane first used in cotton insect control. First aircraft equipment developed for applying dust insecticides for insect control.
  • Nicotine became available commercially as an insecticide for control of cotton aphids.
  • Bordeaux mixture first suggested as control for leafhoppers.
  • Lubricating oil emulsion saved midwestern apple orchards.
  • Wettable sulfur first recommended.
  • Insecticidal sprays developed for use in protecting green logs from. insect injury.
  • Rotenone-bearing insecticides reported effective for control of cattle grub and cattle louse. No better insecticide exists today (1953) for use in the control of the cattle grub.
  • Creosote-oil barriers started to appear in Kansas for chinch bug control.
  • Mexican bean beetle control by use of calcium arsenate reported.
  • Casein tested as spray "sticker."
  • Magnesium arsenate developed for control of Mexican bean beetle.
  • Calcium cyanide dust first suggested as insecticidal fumigant.
1923
  • Carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dichloride tested as flour mill insecticidal fumigants.
  • Screwworm control by use of benzol and pine tar oil recommended.
  • Geraniol discovered an attractant for Japanese beetles.
1924
  • Airplane first used in control of disease-bearing insects. Paris green dust applied to swamps in Louisiana for control of malaria-carrying Anopheles mosquitoes.
  • First commercial use of airplanes for applying insecticides.
  • Airship (blimp) used experimentally for applying insecticidal dusts.
  • Japanese beetle trap devised and bait developed for survey purposes.
  • Stationary spray plants first constructed.
  • Aster yellows disease demonstrated spread by aster leafhopper.
  • Colloidal sulfur first recommended.
  • First tests with cryolite on Mexican bean beetle.
  • Fluorine compounds suggested as insecticides.
1925
  • First liquid duster equipment appeared.
  • First airplane dusting of orchards for insect control purposes.
  • Insecticidal dusts used for first time in field crops for control of alfalfa weevil.
  • Selenium tested as insecticide.
  • First basic lead arsenate of definite composition made. Ethylene dibromide fumigant discovered. Electrical charging of arsenical dust particles made known.
  • Western Cooperative Spray Project effected.
  • Baits containing poisons first used extensively for tobacco budworm control.
  • Colloidal clays suggested as emulsifiers for miscible oils.
  • British health authorities rejected shipments of American apples because of arsenical residue hazards. USDA's Food and Drug Act responsibilities were carried out, washing machinery and methods for removing residues developed, and alternate insecticides developed.
1926
  • Fish oil investigated as spray "sticker."
  • Lead arsenate sprays devised for control of clover leaf weevil.
  • Creosote-calcium cyanide chinch bug barriers invented.
  • Lead arsenate found effective for control of Japanese beetle grubs in soil.
  • Barium fluosilicate tested for insecticidal activity.
  • Airplane first tested for grasshopper control purposes.
  • Hot water and vapor heat treatments developed for control of flies, mites, and nematodes infesting narcissus bulbs.
  • Nicotine dusts developed for melon aphid control.
  • Value of highly refined petroleum oils discovered as means of safe and effective insect control.
  • thallium sulfate first suggested as an insecticide.
  • Sweetening, or citrus fruits, proved unnecessary in poison baits used for cutworm control.
  • Chloropicrin first used as fumigant in flour mills.
  • Du Pont began research on insecticidal chemicals.
  • Food and Drug Administration fixed first tolerances of chemicals remaining on market fruits and vegetables.
1927
  • Chemically-treated tree bands developed for codling moth control.
  • Sodium arsenite sprays and dusts first used for grasshopper and Mormon cricket control.
  • Calcium arsenate dusts developed as control for blueberry maggot.
  • Sulfur dusts found effective against citrus thrips.
  • Ethylene dichloride-carbon tetrachloride mixture developed as fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.
1928
  • Ethylene oxide and alkyl formates introduced to American public as fumigants.
  • Clear Lake gnat trap invented; a light-suction fan device.
  • Cryolite found effective in codling moth control in Northwest.
  • New Jersey mosquito light trap invented.
  • Hercules Powder Company started investigations on terpenes as insecticides.
  • Peet-Grady spray test described.
  • USDA reorganized Food, Drug, and Insecticide work. Federal Insecticide Board, operative since Act of 1910, ceased to function.
  • Du Pont acquired assets and business of Grasselli Chemical Company.
1929
  • Carbon dioxide added to ethylene oxide and found to increase fumigation effectiveness of latter gas.
  • Vapor heat treatment developed to eliminate Mediterranean fruit fly from Florida citrus fruit.
  • U.S. industry manufactured insecticides valued at $23,505,000. Of this amount, household insecticides (Flit-type) were worth $13,350,000; calcium arsenate 31,314,000 pounds, worth $1,733,000; arsenate of lead 29,903,000 pounds worth $3,304,000; carbon bisulfide $2,860,000; carbon tetrachloride $1,728,000; various arsenical compounds, $500,000.
  • Resistance to insecticides by codling moth pointed out.
  • Anabasine isolated from plants and synthesized.
  • Alkyl phthalates patented as insect repellents.
  • Procedure developed for sampling apples for arsenical spray residues by statistical analysis.
  • thiocyanate produced commercially as synthetic contact insecticide spray.
1930
  • Airplane first used for distribution of insecticides in spray form.
  • First fixed nicotine compound successfully developed.
  • Asiatic garden beetle trap invented.
  • Du Pont started production of barium fluosilicate.
1931
  • Rotenone importation, 5,000 pounds.
  • First recommendations made concerning yellow electric light bulbs as non-attractive to many insects.
  • First seizures of shipments of fresh vegetables made by the Food and Drug Adm.inistration because of excessive insecticidal residues. Research started to find how to reduce excessive residues on fruits and vegetables.
1932
  • Nicotine-oil mixture developed for the control of pecan casebearer in Southeast.
  • Early spring sprays developed for control of pecan phylloxera.
  • First experimentation with "black light" in light traps for insect control purposes.
  • Hemlock looper controlled by insecticidal dusts applied by airplanes.
  • Chemical structure of rotenone determined.
  • Pyrethrum dust treatments developed for control of celery leaf tier.
  • Celery growth studies demonstrated that insecticides can be applied to crop until six weeks before harvest without incurring residue hazard.
  • Airplane first used experimentally for distributing wet poison baits in grasshopper control efforts.
  • Sodium fluosilicate bait developed for control of European earwig.
  • Rotenone dust treatments developed for control of turnip aphid.
1933
  • Lead arsenate found to control pecan nut casebearer in semi-arid regions.
  • Analytical methods established for rotenone.
  • Agricultural Insecticide and Fungicide Association formed.
  • Rotenone dusts and sprays developed for control of Mexican bean beetle.
1934
  • Insecticidal chemical used this year; Arsenicals, 80-90 million pounds, sulfur 73 million pounds, kerosene 10 million gallons, mineral oil emulsion 40 million pounds, creosote oil for wood protection, 106 million pounds, petroleum oil for wood preserving 20 million gallons, napthalene and paradichlorobenzene 21 million pounds, pyrethrum 10 million pounds, nicotine sulphate 2 million pounds, rotenone 1.5 million pounds.
  • Chinch bug outbreak; more than 25,000 Missouri farmers used 1 1/4 million gallons of creosote barrier oil to save their crops.
  • Harmful residues of insecticides demonstrated avoidable on market cabbage by not applying chemicals after heads begin to form.
  • Rotenone-bearing insecticides developed for control of flea beetles on cigar wrapper tobacco, raspberry fruit worm, and pea weevil.
  • Pyrethrum-bearing insecticides developed for control of cabbage looper on lettuce.
  • Phenothiazine first noted as insecticidal.
  • Nicotine bentonite developed for codling moth control.
  • Du Pont started production of "Lorol" thiocyanate.
1935
  • Cigarette beetle light trap invented.
  • Anabasine discovered in tree tobacco.
  • Autogiro first used to dust and spray cranberry bogs.
  • Rotenone- and pyrethrum-bearing dusts developed for control of cabbage caterpillars, without incurring harmful residue hazard.
  • Rotenone-bearing dusts proved effective in control of pea aphid.
  • Phenothiazine introduced as an insect pest control chemical. Du Pont started producing it. this chemical later found especially effective as antihelminthic in livestock.
  • Pyrethrum extract in kerosene spray recommended for disinsectization purposes in aircraft.
1936
  • Ethylene dichloride found to control peach tree borer.
  • Autogiro used to apply concentrated sprays in cankerworm control.
  • Pure pyrethrum extract first prepared.
  • Concentrated sprays developed to control forest insect pests.
1937
  • First insecticidal control methods developed and recommended for European corn borer in sweet corn.
  • Tank-mix nicotine bentonite spray developed for codling moth control in Midwest. Method developed for impregnating trees with chemicals before felling to protect posts, poles, and rustic construction from insect damage.
  • Paradichlorobenzene fumigation treatments developed for control of sweet potato weevil in seed sweet potatoes.
1938
  • Methyl bromide fumigation schedules developed to control oriental fruit moth on nursery stock.
  • Bark penetrating sprays developed for control of bark beetles.
  • Kerosene and carbon disulphide emulsions, and lead arsenate, recommended for control of white grubs in lawns and golf courses.
  • Du Pont started producing IN-930 fly spray.
  • Peanut yields increased by control of potato leafhopper with bordeaux spray or sulfur dusts.
  • Oil-insecticide treatment of sweet corn recommended for corn earworm control.
  • Cold treatment of fruit on board ships while en route to U. S. recommended as method to eliminate fruit fly larvae.
  • First synergist chemical discovered. Sesame oil demonstrated to increase effectiveness of pyrethrum.
1939
  • Diphenylamine found to control screw-worm maggots in wounds.
  • First use of airplane in large-scale grasshopper control programs.
  • Xanthone introduced as insecticide.
1940
  • Sodium fluosilicate baits developed for control of Mormon cricket.
  • Methyl bromide fumigation method developed to control Japanese beetles in commodity shipments.
  • Insecticides as "smokes" first tested as fumigants. this was first step toward development of aerosol.
  • Spraying and dusting equipment production in U.S. totaled $4 million.
  • First dry baits applied by aircraft.
  • Sesame oil patented as activator of such insecticides as pyrethrum.
1941
  • Cryolite recommended for commercial control of sugarcane borer.
  • EQ-62 screw-worm remedy developed.
  • liquefied gas propelled insecticide aerosols (aerosol bomb) invented.
1942
  • Methyl bromide fumigation method developed for delousing military clothing and equipment.
  • Citrus thrips developed resistance to tartar emetic-sugar bait after only 3 years use.
  • Sodium fluosilicate shown effective in poisoned baits for control of mole crickets.
  • Invention of light trap to catch night flying moths of such pests as cutworms and armyworms.
  • Dimethyl phthalate, benzyl benzoate, and other insect repellents discovered and developed for military and subsequent civilian use.
  • Testing of chemicals for possible insecticidal value started during developmental program for control of insect-borne disease among Armed Forces. By 1947, more than 13,000 such chemicals had been tested and classified.
  • First light trap with timing device invented.
  • Practically wax free pyrethrins produced, thereby avoiding stoppage of aerosol nozzles.
1943
  • Aerosols developed for control of most greenhouse insect and mite pests.
  • DDT developed for control of typhus, malaria, and other diseases carried by insects. Practical value of DDT demonstrated in control of houseflies. DDT sprays and dusts developed for control of bedbugs, fleas, hornflies, and lice on cattle, and lice on other livestock. DDT soil treatments developed for control of white-fringed beetle, bollworm, and grubs of Japanese beetles. DDT found effective for control of pea aphid, cabbage caterpillars, gladiolus thrips, onion thrips, tuber flea beetle, and numerous other agricultural pests.
  • Equipment developed for applying liquid insecticides from small aircraft to control disease-bearing and agricultural insect pests.
  • Parasites of Comstock mealy bug introduced. this resulted in elimination of pest from eastern apple orchards.
1944
  • DDT production started; 91,600,000 pounds. Du Pont started producing DDT on commercial scale.
  • Anethole and pimenta leaf oil developed as wartime substitutes for geraniol.
  • Colorimetric analytical method for determination of DDT developed.
  • First use of airplane for applying sprays in forest insect control.
  • BHC found effective for control of boll weevil, and BHC-DDT mixtures found effective for control of boll weevil, bollworm, and cotton aphid.
  • Multi-engine aircraft carrying 1,000 gallons of insecticide first used for insect control.
  • First constant-flow gravity-type tank installations in cargo-carrying aircraft developed for spraying of insecticides.
  • Paradichlorobenzene demonstrated an effective chemical for use in dry deep pit latrines in controlling certain noxious flies breeding in human excrement.
  • DDT insecticides found effective for control of potato psyllid, lygus bugs in sugar beet seed crops, pepper weevil, wireworms in soil, potato leafhopper, pea weevil, beet leafhopper, and tobacco budworm.
1945
  • From 60 to 70 million pounds of calcium arsenate dust being used each year by farmers for control of boll weevil. Experiments conducted each year in Louisiana and South Carolina show use of this insecticide increased yield by an average of 283 to 300 pounds per acre over untreated fields. USDA spent $3.5 million for research on boll weevil control during 50-year period 1895-1944. Average annual loss to weevil about 17th of crop. Total cotton loss due to weevil during 50-year period estimated at $ 9 billion, not including labor, equipment, and insecticide costs.
  • Spraying and dusting equipment production in U. S., $15 million; hand sprayers, 4.5 million units; hand dusters, 775,000 units; traction dusters, 360,000 units; power sprayers, 10,000 units (orchard and tree sprayers 7,500 units, field or row crop sprayers 2,500 units); power dusters, 7,500 units.
  • DDT recommended to federal agencies and industry for use in control of clothes moths and carpet beetles in warehouses to prevent losses of large quantities of stored raw wool.
  • Toxaphene produced in experimental quantities.
  • Chlordane discovered by Julius Hyman of the Velsicol Corporation.
  • Residual toxicity of pyrethrins to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, demonstrated.
  • DDT first used on impounded water for control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus.
  • Methods developed for control of chiggers with BHC, chlordane, or toxaphene.
  • DDT found less destructive to honey bees than arsenicals.
  • Magnesium oxide, or DDT dusts, found effective for protection of seed in storage from insect infestation.
  • DDT found to control pecan nut casebearer, grape berry moth, grape leafhopper, sweet potato weevil in storage, aphid vectors of leafroll in Maine, corn earworm on beans, Colorado potato beetle, tomato fruitworm, and was used to bring hairy vetch weevil under control in Oregon.
  • BHC found effective for control of seven major cotton insect pests.
  • Propylene dichloride found effective for control of peach tree borer.
  • Composition of technical DDT determined, and purchase specifications developed.
1946
  • Design and performance of airplane exhaust generators analyzed for production of DDT aerosols for control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus.
  • Methods developed for controlling ticks attacking man by treating infested fields and woodlands with chlordane, DDT, or toxaphene.
  • First concentrate mist sprayer and duster equipment developed.
  • Combinations of new organic insecticides provides control of all major cotton insects for first time.
  • DDT found to provide control of thrips on prunes, pecan weevil, and chestnut weevil.
  • Pyrethrum-oil spray developed for control of tobacco moth in tobacco warehouses.
  • Du Pont started to produce BHC "Lexone" insecticides.
1947
  • Toxaphene first produced commercially by Hercules Powder Company, after 19 years of research and development. Found to be less toxic to bees than arsenical insecticides.
  • Resistance to DDT and other new insecticides discovered in flies and substitute materials recommended.
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act superseded Federal Insecticide Act of 1910.
  • Lygus bugs, alfalfa weevil, and other insects affecting alfalfa seed crop controlled by DDT, thus materially increasing seed production.
  • Synergistic effect demonstrated of piperonyl compounds on rotenone.
  • BHC, DDT, and toxaphene found effective for control of plant bugs on cotton.
  • Chlordane found effective for control of Japanese beetle grubs in soil.
  • Bark beetles controlled by spraying infested standing trees with bark penetrating sprays.
  • Aerial spray methods developed for control of forest insect pests.
  • Insecticidal methods using DDT, rotenone, or ryania developed for control of European corn borer in sweet corn.
  • Piperonyl butoxide announced as synergist for pyrethrum, making possible use of more economical amounts in insecticide formulations.
  • Pyrethrum spray applications at weekly intervals recommended for control of stored tobacco insects in open-type tobacco warehouses.
  • DDT sprays recommended for prevention of insect damage to rugs, clothing, and fabrics.
  • Aerosol sprays containing DDT recommended for treatment of airplane interiors to prevent accidental dissemination of Japanese beetles.
1948
  • Du Pont introduced methoxychlor. this insecticide proved safe and effective for control of flies and lice on cattle.
  • DDT in mineral oil found to protect seed and sweet corn against damage of corn earworm and armyworm.
  • DDT-sulfur mixture recommended for potato leafhopper control on peanuts.
  • Aldrin and dieldrin discovered by Julius Hyman, and associates.
  • Residual-type spray applications to woodwork of empty storage places recommended as means of preventing damage to stored grain.
  • Automatic aerosol dispensing equipment designed and constructed for use in aircraft.
  • Tank fumigation of cottonseed with methyl bromide found to control pink bollworm.
  • Discovered that schraden is absorbed by cotton plants in sufficient quantity to kill spider mites.
  • Insecticides found to control pear psylla.
  • Control of little fire ant in citrus orchards developed using chlordane, DDT, or toxaphene.
  • Effect of DDT aerial spraying on insect life in forests worked out.
  • Chemical constituents of pyrethrum established.
  • National Agricultural Chemical Association established; change of name from Agricultural Insecticide and Fungicide Association.
  • Low pressure liquefied gas propelled aerosols developed.
  • First commercial production of TEPP.
  • Parathion found effective in control of pea aphids, and of aphids on tobacco.
  • Multi-walled paper bags treated commercially with pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide as means of protecting stored products from insect damage.
  • First sprays applied by aircraft for grasshopper control.
  • Chlordane in setting water shown to be effective remedy for wireworms attacking tobacco transplants.
  • Onion thrips control by means of chlordane, DDT, or toxaphene recommended.
1949
  • Mosquitoes resistant to DDT and other new insecticides found in nature. Substitute materials recommended for their control.
  • Toxaphene demonstrated not to be deposited as residue in fat of beef animals.
  • Safe practices recommended for using chlordane, DDT, lindane, methoxychlor, tdE, or toxaphene on livestock without endangering health of man.
  • Grasshopper control by individual farmers possible for first time by use of chlordane or toxaphene in sprays, dusts, or baits.
  • Found that control of sweet potato weevil infestations in storage can be attained by dusting with DDT.
  • Mixed insecticides found to control pink bollworm--as well as other cotton insects.
  • Strawberry crown borer control developed using chlordane, parathion, or toxaphene.
  • tdE found to control red-banded leaf roller in eastern orchards.
  • DDT detected in milk of cows sprayed with DDT, or receiving DDT as a residue on feed. Safe alternate substitute insecticides recommended for control of flies and lice on cattle, forage crop insect control recommendations modified, and milk producers warned not to use DDT insecticides on dairy cattle.
  • Heptachlor first produced commercially by Velsicol Corporation.
  • Allethrin synthesized.
  • First commercial production of parathion.
  • Equipment designed for distributing dry grasshopper and Mormon cricket bait from 2-engined cargo-carrying aircraft.
  • Automatic aerosol-dispensing equipment designed for use in aircraft.
  • Aerosols containing organic phosphorus compounds found effective against many greenhouse pests.
  • light-weight mist blower designed for vegetable crop use.
1950
  • DDT found to control clover seed weevil in Pacific Northwest.
  • Cryolite and ryania recommended for control of sugarcane borer.
  • Toxaphene recommended for control of insects on blooming alfalfa.
  • Green-bug control in small grains possible for first time by use of parathion applied by aircraft or ground equipment.
  • Aldrin at 2 ounces per acre found to practically eliminate grasshopper infestations.
  • Community-wide use of insecticides demonstrated to increase quantity and improve quality of cotton.
  • Parathion shown to control scale insects on both deciduous and citrus fruits, and San Jose scale on apple, thereby replacing oil which had been in use for more than half a century.
  • Meadow spittlebug control with insecticides on 50,000 acres of legumes in Ohio increased hay yield up to 55 percent.
  • Value of ethylene dibromide discovered as fumigant for control of fruit fly infestations in fresh fruits.
  • Du Pont introduced EPN insecticide.
  • Dual spray apparatus designed and developed for use in airplane spray research.
  • DDT accumulation reported in orchard soils.
  • Gas masks and respirators designed and developed for protection of workers applying parathion and similar insecticides.
  • DDT spray residues found difficult to remove from apples.
  • Spraying and dusting equipment production in U.S.: $32.5 million. Hand sprayers, 14.8 million units; hand dusters, 570,000 units; traction dusters, 550,000 units; power sprayers, 76,000 units (orchard and tree sprayers, 2,500 units, field or row crop sprayers 73, 000 units); power dusters, 25,000 units.
  • Pea plants made toxic to pea aphid by systemic insecticides.
1951
  • Farmers change from dusts to low-pressure, low-gallonage sprays for control of certain insects.
  • Systemic insecticides found for use against aphids and spider mites on greenhouse ornamental plants.
  • Aldrin-treated bags found to protect sorghum seed heads from attack by corn earworm and corn leaf aphid.
  • Red harvester ant control developed, using chlordane or dieldrin.
  • Soil treatment with insecticides for control of wireworms and other soil insects, and early planting, materially increased yields of sugarcane.
  • Developed alfalfa weevil control using chlordane.
  • Insecticides developed for controlling larvae of salt marsh sandflies.
  • Screw-worm remedy EQ-335 developed. this controlled screw-worms in wounds of livestock, and offered public for first time a material that prevented reinfestation of such wounds.
  • Method of bark beetle control developed through use of ethylene dibromide emulsions.
  • Spray distributing equipment for use on helicopters designed and developed.
  • Effect determined on beneficial insects of DDT sprays applied by aircraft.
  • New insecticide, scabrin, found in American weed Heliopsis.
  • Five insecticidal alkaloids found in thunder god vine.
  • Methods developed for analysis of organic insecticides.
  • About 24 million acres treated with insecticides by airplane; requiring about 1/2 million flying hours.
  • DDT impregnation of stocks of woolen cloth stored by QMC recommended.
  • Phytotoxic effects determined of BHC, DDT, and toxaphene on tobacco, cotton, and cowpeas.
  • Parathion found effective for control of pea aphid and pea weevil, and leaf miners and other pests on cantaloupes.
  • Important losses from soil of BHC, DDT, and toxaphene demonstrated.
  • Systemic insecticide schradan found to break down rapidly within treated plant.
  • treatment of seed with aldrin found to provide cheap and effective control of sugar beet maggot on sugar beets.
  • Addition of parathion and sulfur found to increase effectiveness of DDT in retarding spread of leafroll in potatoes.
  • First control of pickleworm on cucumbers made possible by use of lindane.
  • Control of pea aphid in alfalfa found to increase per acre seed yield by nearly 50 percent; control of corn leaf aphid in corn by nearly 25 percent.
1952
  • Pre-soaking treatments of narcissus bulbs demonstrated as control of narcissus bulb fly.
  • EQ-53, DDT formula, announced to insecticide trade.
  • Chlordane soil treatments developed to permit certification of nursery plants under white-fringed beetle quarantine.
  • Colorimetric method developed for analysis of BHC.
  • Two new repellents developed for application to skin of military personnel to prevent attack by mosquitoes and other biting insects.
  • Methoxychlor and parathion recommended for control of alfalfa weevil larvae on alfalfa being harvested for hay.
  • Control of cereal thrips on barley with parathion sprays reported to increase per acre yields by nearly 10 percent.
  • Peanut yields increased by use of aldrin or toxaphene in control of southern corn rootworm.
  • Methoxychlor recommended for control of potato leafhopper on alfalfa, and alfalfa caterpillar, and meadow spittlebug on alfalfa and red clover.
  • Mormon cricket outbreaks averted by application of chlordane or toxaphene baits to infested range lands, and aldrin sprays to protect growing crops.
  • Dieldrin found effective in early spring control of alfalfa weevil adults.
  • Demonstrated that cattle grubs, screw-worms, and some of bloodsucking insect parasites of livestock, killed by injections of certain chemicals into blood stream without affecting health of treated animals.
  • Especially formulated pyrethrum powders and lindane developed as substitutes for DDT powder for controlling DDT-resistant typhus-bearing lice.
  • EPN developed for controlling mosquito larvae resistant to DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons.
  • Heptachlor found effective for control of western harvester ant.
1953
  • Value of bait attractants containing new insecticidal ingredients demonstrated for control of insecticide-resistant flies.
  • All-purpose insect repellent treatment for clothing developed for military use.
  • tdE recommended for control of hornworms on tobacco.
  • Heptachlor, for use on range land only, added to recommended insecticides for grasshopper control.
  • Baits containing aldrin at rate of 1/10th ounce per acre and applied by aircraft eradicated Mormon cricket outbreak on 1/2 million acres.
  • Aerosol dispenser now basis for $100 million industry. Not only used as container for insecticides, but also for deodorants, shaving cream, whipped cream, paints, waxes, and many other commodities.
  • One-half billion pounds of insecticidal chemicals now produced annually, with a value of $250 million plus.
  • Formula EQ-53 released to public after four years of experimentation. It is a nonionic emulsifiable DDT concentrate for use in homes and commercial laundries to mothproof washable woolens.

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