Agricultural Animal Pest Control

Category Definition Category 1B Agricultural Animal Pest Control

This category includes applicators using or supervising the use of restricted use pesticides on animals, including, but not limited to: beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, horses, goats, poultry, and to places on or in which animals are confined.

Learning Objectives Category 1B Agricultural Animal Pest Control


Unit 1 Using Insecticides
  • Explain how insects, mites and ticks cause losses to the livestock industry.
  • Explain what is meant by economic injury level in livestock pest control.
  • List causes of difficulty in controlling livestock pests.
  • List ways to prevent or reduce pesticide accidents.
  • Explain what safety precautions to take when working with pesticides
Unit 2 Beef Cattle Pest Control
  • List common fly species on pastured cattle.
  • Explain precautions which should be taken when handling or applying insecticidal ear tags.
  • Describe ways to control horse flies.
  • Describe how face fly adults feed on cattle.
  • Describe how to control face flies using sprays.
  • Describe how stable fly adults feed on cattle.
  • Describe biological controls which remove effective breeding sites for flies.
  • Explain why manure spraying should not be done routinely.
  • Explain when chemical control of horse flies is best.
  • Explain how an insecticide should be used when blow fly larvae attack animal wounds.
  • Describe at what pressure louse control sprays should be applied.
  • List what form of scabies must, by law, be reported.
  • Explain the cause of ear canker in cattle.
  • Describe nonchemical aids to tick control.
Unit 3 Dairy Cattle Pest Control
  • List sanitation practices for dairy insect management techniques.
  • Explain where horn fly control insecticides should be applied to be most effective.
  • Explain why dust bags are not effective against face flies.
  • Describe in what form stable fly control insecticides should be applied to the legs and belly.
  • List nonchemical control measures for fly control on dairy operations.
  • List areas where residual sprays may be applied in dairies.
  • Describe how black flies feed.
Unit 4 Sheep Pest Control
  • Describe the life cycle of sheep keds.
  • Explain when tick infestations on sheep are serious.
  • Explain when spot treatment is an effective method of treatment for sheep flocks.
Unit 5 Swine Pest Control
  • Describe how sanitation is essential for fly control in swine operations.
  • Explain how mange mite infestations are spread among animals in swine operations.
  • Describe where to look in diagnosing swine for lice.
  • Explain how manure handling schedules should assure that no generation of fly maggots reach adulthood without interruption.
  • Describe when residual surface sprays to control stable flies should be applied.
Unit 6 Horse, Mule, and Donkey Pest Control
  • Describe what types of flies are abundant on horses and what factors contribute to their presence.
  • Explain how the weather affects when horse flies are most active.
  • Explain where and when to apply repellant to control flies.
  • Describe tick species which attack horses.
Unit 7 Poultry Pest Control
  • Describe the most serious mite pest of poultry.
  • Explain how weather conditions effect the presence of poultry lice.
  • Describe methods of tick control in poultry houses.
  • List the fly species that do not reproduce in poultry manure.
  • Explain how to control mosquitoes and black flies in poultry operations.
  • Explain when direct bird treatment is required to control infestations.
  • Explain when bait formulations are useful for control in poultry operations.
Unit 8 Equipment for Animal Pest Control
  • Explain the importance of agitation when using wettable powders in knapsack sprayers.
  • Explain what pressure (psi) should be used to apply pesticide to animal hair.
  • Explain under what conditions mist-blowers are appropriate for applying pesticides.
  • Explain what is meant by a temperature inversion and describe its effects.
  • Explain the basic factors to consider when calibrating equipment.
  • Describe the inspection process for equipment maintenance.
  • Explain the importance of equipment maintenance.
Unit 9 Environmental Safety
  • Explain the potential for groundwater contamination and what precautions should be taken to prevent it.
  • Describe steps for preventing pesticide contamination at the well.
  • Explain the difference between threatened and endangered species.
  • Explain the importance of protecting endangered species.

Test Your Knowledge Category 1B Agricultural Animal Pest Control


Unit 1 Using Insecticides

Q. How do insects, mites and ticks cause losses to the livestock industry?
A. Insects, mites and ticks cause losses to the livestock industry by reduced production of meat, milk or eggs, increased meat trim, hide loss, and occasionally, dead animals.

Q. Define economic injury level in livestock pest control.
A. Economic injury level in livestock pest control means the lowest number of pests that will cause damage equals the cost of preventing that damage.

Q. How might lack of sanitation affect pest control?
A. Sloppy feed handling and overfilled watering facilities create breeding areas for flies.

Q. What are reasons for difficulty in controlling livestock pests?
A. Difficulty in controlling livestock pests may be caused by poor understanding of the pest's biology, application in the wrong place, or at the wrong time or inattention to label mixing and use directions.

Q. Explain ways to prevent or reduce pesticide accidents.
A. Methods to reduce pesticide accidents include following label instructions and storing pesticides safely.

Q. When handling or applying pesticides, what personal protective equipment may be required on various pesticide labels?
A. When handling or applying pesticides, various pesticide labels may require that applicators wear a hood and jacket, rubber pants or cotton pants, a rain coat and a shirt.

Unit 2 Beef Cattle Pest Control

Q. When are adult heel flies most present in South Carolina?
A. Adult heel flies are most present in March and April.

Q. What fly is the primary fly species on pastured cattle?
A. The horn fly is the primary fly species on pastured cattle.

Q. What personal protective equipment should be worn when handling or applying insecticidal ear tags?
A. Only non-leather, non-cloth, unlined gloves should be worn when handling or applying insecticidal ear tags.

Q. What is a convenient way to control horn flies?
A. A convenient way to control horn flies is through the use of backrubbers.

Q. How do face fly adults feed on cattle?
A. Face fly adults feed on cattle by consuming tears, saliva and nasal mucus.

Q. What area of cattle should be treated when using sprays to control face flies?
A. Treat the face area, especially around the eyes.

Q. What kind of mouth parts do house flies have?
A House flies have sponging mouth parts.

Q. What are some biological control agents for flies?
A. Parasitic wasps, predatory beetles, and parasitic beetles are biological control agents of flies.

Q. What should the minimum air temperature be when using knockdown treatments for fly control?
A. When using knockdown treatments for fly control, apply when the flies are relatively inactive and there is a minimum air temperature of 70 °F.

Q. Why should manure spraying not be done routinely?
A. Manure spraying should not be done routinely because it destroys beneficial mites and insects and it increases likelihood of insecticide resistance.

Q. What type of fly are backrubbers most effective for?
A. Backrubbers are most effective for the control of horn flies.

Q. When is chemical control of horse flies most effective?
A. Chemical control of horse flies is most effective when dust bags and backrubber oilers are used on the back and upper body.

Q. How should an insecticide be used when blow fly larvae attack animal wounds?
A. An insecticide should be used to treat the infested wounds and surrounding skin when blow fly larvae attack animal wounds.

Unit 3 Dairy Cattle Pest Control

Q. How long do lice spend on the host animals?
A. Lice spend the entire life cycle on the host animals.

Q. At what pressure should louse control sprays be applied?
A. Louse control sprays should be applied at 200-250 psi unless otherwise specified.

Q. How many pairs of wings do ticks have?
A. Ticks do not have wings.

Q. 'Ear canker' in cattle is caused by what type of tick?
A. 'Ear canker' in cattle is caused by spinose ear tick.

Q. What are some nonchemical aids to tick control?
A. Reducing rodent population in pastures, reducing shrubs and trees in pastures, and late-spring burning of pastures, where allowed, are all nonchemical aids to tick control.

Q. Insecticidal ear tags will help control what kinds of ticks?
A. Insecticidal ear tags will help control spinose ear tick and the Gulf Coast tick.

Q. What are some dairy insect management techniques used to control pests of dairy cattle?
A. Proper construction, screening and caulking, and chemical insecticides as well as sanitation practices are dairy insect management techniques to control pests of dairy cattle.

Q. Horn fly control insecticides are most effective when applied on what part of the animal?
A. Horn fly control insecticides are most effective when applied on the back line and upper sides of the animal.

Q. Why are dust bags not effective against face flies?
A. Dust bags are not effective against face flies because the animals tend to duck under them.

Q. Stable fly control insecticides are only effective when applied to the legs and belly as what form?
A. Stable fly control insecticides are only effective when applied to the legs and belly as sprays.

Q. What is the basis for all other control measures for stable flies and house flies?
A. Rigorous sanitation, including frequent manure disposal is the basis for control of stable flies and house flies.

Q. What are types of nonchemical control measures for fly control on dairy operations?
A. Parasitic wasps, electrocutor traps, and sticky traps are types of nonchemical control measures for fly control on dairy operations.

Q. What objects may residual sprays in dairies be applied to?
A. Walls and fences are places where residual sprays in dairies may be applied.

Q. What type of mange represents a severe skin disease and is quarantinable?
A. Psoroptic mange is a severe skin disease and is quarantinable.

Q. How do black flies (turkey gnats) feed?
A. Black flies feed by lapping eye secretion

Unit 4 Sheep Pest Control

Q. What type of insects are sheep keds?
A. Sheep keds are actually flat, wingless flies.

Q. When are tick infestations on sheep serious?
A. Tick infestations on sheep are usually only serious when sheep are pastured in brushy areas.

Q. In sheep, what is a snotty nose often symptomatic of?
A. In sheep, a snotty nose is often symptomatic of sheep bot fly infestation.

Q. For what pests is spot treatment an effective method in sheep flocks?
A. Spot treatment is an effective method of treatment for ear ticks and preventing wound-infesting maggots, e.g. blow flies.

Unit 5 Swine Pest Control

Q. In swine operations, what is essential for fly control, regardless of insecticide use?
A. In swine operations, sanitation is essential for fly control, regardless of insecticide use.

Q. How are mange mite infestations spread in swine operations?
A. Mange mite infestations in swine operations are spread among animals by animal contact.

Q. What should you look for when diagnosing swine for lice?
A. In diagnosing swine for lice, look especially inside and on the ears, under the neck, and in the leg axillae.

Q. What is usually the most numerous non-biting species in swine operations?
A. In swine operations, the house fly is usually the most numerous non-biting species.

Q. In swine operations, what schedule or process should ensure that no generation of fly maggots reach adulthood without interruption?
A. In swine operations, manure handling schedules should ensure that no generation of fly maggots reach adulthood without interruption.

Q. Where should residual surface sprays to control stable flies be applied?
A. Residual surface sprays to control stable flies should be applied within three to four feet of the floor.

Q. How do oral larvicides control fly maggots?
A. Oral larvicides work by controlling fly maggots in the manure.

Unit 6 Horse, Mule, and Donkey Pest Control

Q. What type of flies are only abundant on horses when they are near pastured cattle?
A. Horn flies and heel flies are only abundant on horses when they are near pastured cattle.

Q. When are horse flies most active in attacking?
A. Horse flies are most active in attacking on sunny days.

Q. Where should wax-stick repellent be applied to control face flies?
A. Apply wax-stick repellent on horse cheeks, muzzle top and around eyes to control face flies.

Q. Wipe-ons are usually more appropriate than whole horse sprays for what kind of control?
A. Wipe-ons are usually more appropriate than whole horse sprays for stable fly control on horses.

Q. What types of tick species attack horses?
A. Spinose ear ticks, Gulf Coast ticks, lone star tick, American dog tick, blacklegged tick, and winter ticks all attack horses.

Unit 7 Poultry Pest Control

Q. What is the most serious mite pest of poultry?
A. The northern foul mite is the most serious mite pest of poultry.

Q. Under what weather conditions are poultry lice more common?
A. Poultry lice are more common during cold weather.

Q. Where should insecticides be directed in poultry houses for control of ticks and bed bugs?
A. Direct insecticides at cracks and crevices in the poultry house for control of ticks.

Unit 8 Equipment for Animal Pest Control

Q. What is a type of spray that floats in the air?
A. A space spray is a type of spray that floats in the air.

Q. In knapsack sprayers, when is it important to have agitation?
A. In knapsack sprayers, it is important to have agitation especially when using wettable powders.

Q. What psi should be used to apply pesticide to animal's hair?
A. A low pressure of 20 psi should be used to apply pesticide to the animal's hair.

Q. Mist-blowers are often used to apply pesticides under what conditions?
A. Mist-blowers are often used to apply pesticides in large feed lots and on range.

Q. A temperature inversion occurs under what conditions?
A. A temperature inversion occurs when air overhead is warmer than at the ground.

Q. What components are inspected as part of equipment maintenance?
A. Equipment maintenance involves frequent inspection of valves, nozzles and connections.

Q. Why is equipment care important?
A. Equipment care is important to applicator safety; to ensure application of the prescribed amount; and to prevent leakage.

Unit 9 Environmental Safety

Q. What are three kinds of non-point source pesticide pollution?
A. The three kinds of non-point source pesticide pollution are runoff, run-in and leaching. Runoff occurs when rainfall or irrigation rates exceed the rate at which water can be absorbed into the soil. When runoff occurs, pesticide residues can be carried off the field and into surface waters. Run-ins is the transport of pollutants to groundwater by a direct route, such as through a sinkhole or an abandoned well. Leaching occurs when contaminants are carried through the soil with excess water that percolates below the crop root zone and into the groundwater. Leaching is most common in sandy, permeable soils.

Q. What is the difference between threatened species and endangered species?
A. Plants or animals in danger of becoming extinct are classified as 'endangered'. Plants or animals of intermediate rarity are classified as 'threatened'. Threatened means that the possibility of becoming endangered exists if the population declines.

Q. What type of pesticide containers are accepted for recycling?
A. Only empty, dry plastic containers that have been triple- or pressure-rinsed will be accepted for recycling. Product booklets, plastic sleeves and lids should be removed before inspection.

Selected Web Sites The following are web links containing information pertaining to Category 1B Agricultural Animal Pest Control:


Resources found at Clemson University
  1. Regulatory Services Department of Pesticide Regulation
  2. Extension Pesticide Information Program
  3. Extension Pesticide Information Program links to pesticide labels, MSDSheets, and chemical fact sheets
  4. Extension Pesticide Information Program links to listings and information about restricted use pesticides (RUPs)
  5. Research & Education Centers (RECs) (Edisto, Pee Dee, Sandhill and Coastal)
Other selected resources found on the Web
  1. Wildlife Damage Management - the Internet Center for WDM