Unit 3 Formulations

Content

  • Liquid Formulations
  • Dry Formulations
  • Fumigants
  • Adjuvants

Learning Objectives Unit 3 Formulations

After you complete your study of this unit, you should be able to:

  • Explain what a pesticide formulation is.
  • Distinguish between "active" and "inert" ingredients.
  • Identify factors to considerwhen choosing a formulation.
  • Use your knowledge of the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of different types of pesticide formulations to select appropriate formulations for specific purposes.
  • Recognize the purpose of adjuvants, and list several types.

Test Your Knowledge Unit 3 Formulations

Q. What is a pesticide formulation?
A. A pesticide formulation is the mixture of active and inert (inactive) ingredients that forms a pesticide product.

Q. What is the difference between active ingredients and inert ingredients?
A. Active ingredients are the chemicals in a pesticide product that control pests. Inert ingredients are the chemicals in a pesticide product that are added to make the product safer, more effective, easier to measure, mix, and apply, and more convenient to handle.

Q. What types of factors should you consider when you have a choice of formulations for a pest control task?
A. You should think about the characteristics of each formulation, and you should consider which of the formulation's advantages and disadvantages are important in your application situation. Also consider the following: Do you have the right application equipment? Can you apply the formulation safely? Will the formulation reach the target and stay in place long enough to control the pest? Might the formulation harm the target site?

Q. If you had a choice of either a wettable powder formulation or a granular formulation for a particular pest control task, which would be best if drift were a major concern? Which would be best if you need the pesticide to stay on a surface that is not level, such as foliage?
A. The granular formulation would be the best choice in the first situation, because granules have a much lower drift hazard than wettable powders. Granules do not stick to nonlevel surfaces, so the wettable powder would be the best choice in the second situation.

Q. If you had a choice of either a wettable powder or an emulsifiable concentrate for a particular pest control task, which would be better if you were concerned about harming the treated surface? Which would be best if you were diluting with very hard or alkaline water?
A. The wettable powder would be the best choice in the first situation, because emulsifiable concentrates (ECs) are corrosive and may cause pitting, discoloration, or other damage to treated surfaces. Wettable powders are difficult to mix in very hard or very alkaline water, so the EC formulation would be the best choice in the second situation.

Q. Why are adjuvants sometimes added to pesticide formulations?
A. Adjuvants are added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase its effectiveness or safety.

Q. What type(s) of adjuvants should you consider for reducing drift? for coating a surface evenly? when you wish to combine two or more pesticides for one application?
A. Foaming agents and thickeners help to reduce drift. Spreaders help to coat the treated surface with an even layer of pesticide. Compatibility agents aid in combining pesticides effectively.

Additional Resources
Clemson University websites:

  1. Regulatory Services Clemson University Department of Pesticide Regulation
  2. Extension Pesticide Information Program