Potential Effects of FQPA on Vegetable Growers in South Carolina

Summaries on Vegetable Crops

Impact with Respect to Insect Pests > >

Impact of FQPA on South Carolina Vegetable Crops with Respect to Plant Diseases

Anthony Keinath, Extension Plant Pathologist

October 1998

General Comments

1) Quality is an essential component of marketable yield for all vegetable crops. If quality is reduced, yield is automatically reduced.

2) Several new fungicides (azoxystrobin and myclobutanil) that could replace many uses of carbamates and B1/B2 carcinogens are close to registration. They very likely could be used under Sec. 18 requests or state crisis exemptions in 1999.

Comments on Individual Crops

Crop: Watermelon (10,000-11,000 acres)
Maximum fungicide use is on this crop.
Alternatives: Azoxystrobin (registration anticipated) alternated with copper (my data on efficacy).
Yield: No change.

Crop: Cantaloupe
Alternatives: Azoxystrobin (registration anticipated) alternated with copper; myclobutanil (registration anticipated); mefenoxam/copper or ALIETTTE (costly material).
Yield: No change or -5%.

Crop: Cucumber
Alternatives: same as cantaloupe
Yield: Spring crop: no change. Fall crop (20% of spring cucumber crop acreage): -40% loss (North Carolina data) due to target spot if azoxystrobin is not an effective replacement for carbamates (no data on efficacy against this disease).

Crop: Summer squash
Alternatives: same as cantaloupe
Yield: No change.

Crop: Tomato
Alternatives: Azoxystrobin already registered. No alternative to B1/B2 EBDC fungicides used to enhance effectiveness of coppers, although the benefits of mixing are debated. Fall crop is ~5% of summer crop.
Yield: -10% in fall crop; 5% loss due to bacterial spot in main-season crop.

Crop: Snap bean
Alternatives: sulfur, DCNA and PCNB for one carbamate use.
Yield: -5 to 10% due to gray mold, alternatives to carbamates not effective against this disease.

Crop: Lima bean (~2,000 acres)
Alternatives: sulfur/copper, possibly azoxystrobin.
Yield: no change, as carbamates and B1/B2 not currently registered.

Crop: Collard
Alternatives: sulfur/copper, possibly azoxystrobin.
Yield: no change, as carbamates and B1/B2 not currently registered.

Crop: Turnip
Alternatives: sulfur/copper.
Yield: -38% (roots), -32% (tops) (Tennessee data) without carbamate fungicide; no B1/B2 registered.

Crop: Mustard greens
Alternatives: sulfur/copper, possibly azoxystrobin.
Yield: no change, as carbamates and B1/B2 not currently registered.

Crop: Kale
Alternatives: sulfur/copper.
Yield: -10% for loss of B1/B2 fungicide; (carbamates not currently registered).

Crop: Sweet corn
Alternatives: Propiconazole
Yield: no change; (carbamates not currently registered).

Crop: Onion, dry bulb and green.
Alternatives: possibly azoxystrobin, dry bulb-mefenoxam/copper, or Aliette (costly)
Yield: -10 to 20% (rough estimate). Green onions 30-50% to downy mildew, other diseases.

Comments on Question 3:

No increase in mycotoxins in vegetables (none now).

Comments on a Ban on Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide on South Carolina Vegetables and Selected Field Crops

R.P. Griffin and P. Smith, Dept. of Entomology

October 1998


These vegetables/pests will have no alternative chemicals available. Estimates of yield loss are provided where available.

Vegetable Associated Pests and Yield Losses, where available
Sweet corn: rootworms, wireworms, billbugs, seedcorn maggot.
20% yield loss in coastal plain (coastal plain is half of total acreage)
Irish potatoes: wireworms
30% yield loss on approximately 700 coastal plain acres
Sweetpotatoes: wireworms, fleabeetle larvae, flea beetles
Beans: bean leaf beetle, lima bean pod borer, bean leafroller, leafminer,
thrips, loopers, plant bugs, wireworms
Broccoli: root maggots, mole crickets
 
Cabbage: root maggots, mole crickets
 
Cantaloupe: beet armyworms, thrips
 
Collards: flea beetle, root maggots
 
Cucumbers: thrips, beet armyworm
 
Greens: root maggots
 
Okra: aphids, Japanese beetles, corn earworm
 
Onions: onion maggot
 
Southern pea: loopers, thrips, cutworms
 
Peppers: cutworms
 
Pumpkin: flea beetles


These field crops/pests will have no alternative chemicals available. Estimates of yield loss are provided.

Field Crop Associated Pests and Yield Losses, where available
Pasture grass: fall armyworm, true armyworm, grasshoppers
20 % yield loss
Alfalfa: alfalfa webworm, tree-corned alfalfa hopper, blister beetle
 
Sorghum: aphids


These vegetables/pests will have one alternative chemicals available. Estimates of yield loss are provided.


Vegetable Associated Pests and Yield Losses, where available
Asparagus: asparagus beetle - permethrin
 
Beans: corn earworm, cutworm, pea aphids - esfenvalerate
 
Cantaloupe: aphids - endosulfan
 
Collards: aphids - imidacloprid
harequin bug - endosulfan
Eggplant: corn earworm - esfenvalerate
 
Greens: aphids - imidacloprid
flea beetles, harlequin bug - endosulfan
Southern pea: aphids, cowpea curculio, hornworms - endosulfan
 
Peppers: hornworms, pepper maggot - endosulfan
 
Spinach: aphids - endosulfan
cutworm - permethrin
Squash: aphids - endosulfan
 
Tomato: blister beetle - endosulfan
 
Watermelon: aphids - endosulfan

These field crops/pests will have one alternative chemicals available. Estimates of yield loss are provided.

Field Crop Associated Pests and Yield Losses, where available
Alfalfa: alfalfa weevil, pea aphid, fall armyworm, potato leafhopper - permethrin
 
Sorghum: corn earworm, fall armyworm, sorghum webworm, sorghum midge, lesser cornstalk borer, chinch bug - cyhalothrin