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Tools and Resources


Ergonomic Assessment Tool

Within the ambulatory care environment, healthcare organizations are challenged to address the rapidly advancing technological demands associated with electronic health records (EHR) when building new facilities or renovating existing infrastructures. The Clemson Healthcare Work System Ergonomic Assessment Toolkit is a tool for evaluating the ergonomics of alternative computer workstation configurations within the broader context of the ambulatory work system which they are placed. The toolkit provides guidance for analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of varying applications of technology integration into ambulatory workspaces to support evidence-based design decisions. 


Safe OR Design Tool

The Safe OR Design Tool is grounded in the work that has been conducted as part of an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) funded Patient Safety Learning Lab (PSLL) titled Realizing Improved Patient Care through Human-Centered Design in the Operating Room (RIPCHD.OR). The tool provides an opportunity to interact with components in an OR environment through a 3D model. The web interface also allows users to explore design strategies and their associated desired outcomes for a series of design elements commonly found in OR environments. Additionally, users of the tool may filter design strategies by type and access citations associated with each design strategy. This tool can also support multiple stakeholders in understanding how the built environment can be leveraged to increase safety in the OR.


Ambulatory Care Center Design Tool (ACCDT)

The Ambulatory Care Center Design Tool (ACCDT) builds upon a series of papers, best practice case studies and in-depth literature reviews conducted by Center for Health Design (CHD) as well as CHD's Clinic Design Post-Occupancy Evaluation Toolkit – Tool 2 Audit of Physical Environment with additions from a thesis by Crews (2013). The tool is organized around three main spatial categories: building exterior, building interior, and community spaces. A set of 13 design goals that are critical for the design of the ambulatory care centers have been identified based on previously conducted literature reviews and case studies. The tool provides design features that can be prioritized based on the goals, agreements, limitations, or decisions of the design team.


Flows Mapping Tool

The efficiency of flows including people, objects, information and services, is impacted by spatial configuration of space. The flow mapping tool provides a step-by-step guide for graphically documenting these different flows and interpreting spatial configuration characteristics based on interviews and on-site observations. The spatial context section that is meant to be filled out prior to site visit is comprised of a pre-assessment questionnaire and a physical assessment checklist. The flows section meant for use during the site visit provides guidance on physical assessment of the space, photo assessment as well as interview questions for specific staff members. This tool can also be found as supplementary material associated with this journal article: Machry, H., Joseph, A., & Wingler, D. The Fit Between Spatial Configuration and Idealized Flows: Mapping Flows in Surgical Facilities as Part of Case Study Visits. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 0(0), 1937586720928350. For additional details refer to   


High Fidelity OR Mock-up

As part of the RIPCHD.OR learning lab (2015-2020), Clemson University in collaboration with MUSC designed a safe and ergonomic OR. During year 2 and 3 of the project, the team worked through an iterative OR design process over three phases- conceptual design, design development and design refinement. Each of the design phases was followed by the construction of a physical mock-up with increasing levels of fidelity. The 3D view shows the high-fidelity mockup housed in the Clemson Design Center at Charleston. Some of the key features are modular wall systems, optimal room size and angled position of the bed, work zones clearly demarcated with flooring and spatial layout, storage located in proximity to key work zones, digital integration and increased visual awareness through wall mounted screens, sliding doors and window views. Several surgical procedures were simulated over multiple rounds of testing and evaluations in this high-fidelity mockup. For views visit 3D Mock-up