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College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences

Faculty and Staff Profile

Barry A. Garst

Professor and Coordinator
Youth Development Programs

Office: 277 Lehotsky Hall

Phone: 864-656-1891


Personal Website:

Educational Background

Ph.D. Forestry (Human Dimensions)
Virginia Tech 2005

M.S. Recreation Administration
Arizona State University 1996

B.S. Psychology
Virginia Tech 1993

Courses Taught

--Youth Development in Society

--Creative and Ethical Leadership in a Changing Society
--Assessment and Evaluation of Youth Programs
--Management of Staff and Volunteers
--Youth Development and Nature (Special Topics)
--The Profession of Youth Development Leadership


Dr. Garst's applied research focuses on critical and emerging issues facing the out-of-school time community of youth, staff, parents, alumni, and program providers. He also serves as Research Chair for the Association of Camp Nursing, examining factors impacting health and safety outcomes for youth and staff within the context of summer camp. Recent research has explored overparenting among parents of early adolescents, parent anxiety associated with summer camp experiences, and effective camp health care practices following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research Interests

Positive youth development within out-of-school time
Factors influencing participant health and safety outcomes within summer camps
Parent anxiety and overparenting
Summertime food insecurity
Contributions of online education to the professional pathways of youth development leaders
Nature as a developmental context

Research Publications

Weston, K., Garst, B., Bowers, E., & Quinn, W. (2021). Cultivating knowledge of resiliency and reintegration among military youth through a national youth leadership program. Evaluation and Program Planning.

Garst, B., Bowers, E., Quinn, W., & Weston, K. (2021). Benefits and challenges of a blended online youth development graduate degree program. American Journal of Distance Education.

Garst, B., Dubin, A., Bunke, C., Schellpfeffer, N., Gaslin, T., Ambrose, M., & Hashikawa, A. (2021). Barriers impacting organizational immunization policy implementation in U.S. and Canadian summer camps. Children's Health Care. https://doi.10.1080/02739615.2020.1870118

Bunke, C., Schellpfeffer, N., Garst, B., Bradin, S., Gaslin, T., Ambrose, M., & Hashikawa, A. (2021). A survey of camp leadership to assess immunization requirements, policies, and current practices in a national cohort of summer camps. JAMA Pediatrics. http://doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5342

Gagnon, R., Garst, B., Bowers, B., Zinzow, H., & Thompson, M. (2020). Camp as a context for need satisfaction among Native American youth: Examining links to participation quality and quantity. Children and Youth Services Review.

Garst, B.A., Bowers, E.P., & Stephens, L. (2020). Efficacy of CrossFit Kids for fostering health/fitness and academic outcomes in middle school students. Evaluation and Program Planning, 83.

Garst, B. & Whittington, A. (2020). Defining moments of summer camp experiences: An exploratory study with youth in early adolescence. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 12(3), 306-321.

Quinn, W., Garst, B., Bowers, E., & Weston, K. (2020). Advancing academic pathways for building capacity in the youth development profession. Journal of Youth Development, 15(1), 150- 164.

Garst, B., Gagnon, R.J., Olsen, L., & Owens, M. (2020). Parental anxiety associated with summer camp experiences: A comparative analysis across volunteer and employee-staff camps. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 8(1).

Pinckney, H.P., Clanton, T. Garst, B., & Powell, G. (2020). Faith-based organizations: Oft’ overlooked youth development zones. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 38(1).

Dale, R., Powell, B., Stern, M., & Garst, B. (2020). Influence of the natural setting on environmental education outcomes. Environmental Education Research.

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., & Stone, G. (2019). "The credit card or the taxi": A qualitative investigation of parent involvement in indoor competition climbing. Leisure Sciences.

Dubin, A., Garst, B.A., Gaslin, T., & Schultz, B.E. (2019). The experience of workplace fatigue within the context of summer camp: Perspectives from camp healthcare providers and directors. Journal of Experiential Education.

Olsen, L., Garst, B., & Powell, G. (2019). Parental perceptions of year-round school environments. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 33(4), 579-591.

Gagnon, R.J. & Garst, B. (2019). Examining overparenting and child gender in adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Browne, L., Gillard, A., & Garst, B. (2019). Camp as an institution of socialization: Past, present, and future. Journal of Experiential Education, 1-14.

Robinson, R.L., Arbogast, K.B., Garst, B., & Corwin, D.J. (2019). Concussion management in summer camps. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration.

Gagnon, R. & Garst, B. (2019). When overparenting is regular parenting: The relationship between child disability and overparenting. 2019 American Camp Association Research Forum Abstracts (pp. 38-40). Retrieved from

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., Olsen, L., & Owens, M. (2019). Parental anxiety associated with summer camp: A comparative analysis across camp staffing models. 2019 American Camp Association Research Forum Abstracts (pp. 44-46). Retrieved from

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., Woodward, J., & Bowen, M. (2019). Building organizational affinity: The relationship between affinity for college and youth outcomes within the context of university-based summer camps. 2019 American Camp Association Research Forum Abstracts (pp. 41-43). Retrieved from

Gagnon, R.J. & Garst, B. (2019). Research and practice: An applied examination of the parental perceptions of developmental outcomes scale. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 11(1), 3-20.

Gagnon, R. J., Garst, B. A., & Townsend, J. A. (2019). Tough decisions in medical specialty camps: Relationships between camp dosage, outcomes, and camper attendance. Social Science and Medicine, 1-35.

Gagnon, R.J. & Garst, B. (2019). Exploring overparenting in summer camp: Adapting, developing, and implementing a measure. Annals of Leisure Research,

Garst, B., Weston, K., Bowers, E., & Quinn, W. (2018). Fostering youth leader credibility: Professional, organizational, and community impacts associated with completion of an online master's degree in youth development leadership. Children and Youth Services Review, 96, 1-9.

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., & Brawley, A. (2018). Efficacy of online training for improving camp staff competency. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 19(1), 12-27.

Allen, L., Garst, B., Bowers, E., & Onyiko, K. (2018). Using core competency frameworks to explore the needs of Kenyan youth workers. Child & Youth Services, 39(2-3), 158-179.

Garst, B. & Garst, S. (2018). Play Ball! Exploring the role of play in sports-based youth development. In S. Arthur-Banning (Ed.), Youth sports in America: The most important issues in youth sports today (pp. 294-303). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Whittington, A. & Garst, B. (2018). The role of camp in shaping college readiness and building a pathway to the future for camp alumni. Journal of Youth Development, 13(1-2), 105-125.

Garst, B. (2018). Nature and youth development. In P. Witt & L. Caldwell (Eds.), Youth development principles and practices in out-of-school time settings (pp. 241-268). State College, Pennsylvania: Sagamore/Venture Publishing.

Olsen, L., Powell, G., Garst, B., & Bixler, R. (2018). Camp and college parallels: Crucibles for transition-linked turning points. Journal of Youth Development, 13(1-2), 126-143.

Gagnon, R., Stone, G., & Garst, B. (2017). Beyond composite scores and Cronbach's alpha: Advancing methodological rigor in recreation research. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership.

Whittington, A., Garst, B., Baughman, S., & Gagnon, R. (2017). Living without boys: A retrospective analysis of the benefits and skills gained at all-female camps. Journal of Experiential Education, 40(2), 97-113.

Sanabria, A. & Garst, B. (2017). Research brief: Injury prevention in camps. Association of Camp Nursing.

Allen, L., Garst, B., Bowers, E., & Onyiko, K. (2016). Building a youth development system in Kenya: Comparing Kenyan perceptions of local and national youth issues. Journal of Youth Development, 11(3), 72-88.

Garst, B., Stone, G., & Gagnon, R. (2016). Indoor competition climbing as a context for positive youth development. Journal of Youth Development, 11(2).

Garst, B. & Gagnon, R. (2016). A structural model of camp director practices and outcomes: Does intention toward program outcomes matter? Journal of Park and Recreation Administration: Special Issue on Positive Youth Development, 34(4), 51-65.

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., & Whittington, A. (2016). A closer look at the camp experience: Examining relationships between life skills, elements of positive youth development, and antecedents of change among camp alumni. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 8(2), 180-199.

Stone, G.A., Gagnon, R.J., Witesman, E., Garst, B.A. (2016). Values and decision-making: Introducing the public servant values questionnaire to recreation administrators. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism, and Recreation Research, 6(1), 13-20.

Gagnon, R., Stone, G., Garst, B., & Arthur-Banning, S. (2016). Competition climbing: From leisure pursuit to lifestyle sport. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism, and Recreation Research, 6(1), 2-12.

Garst, B., Gagnon, R., & Bennett, T. (2016). Parent anxiety causes and consequences- Perspectives from camp program providers. LARNet: The Cyber Journal of Applied Leisure and Recreation Research, 18(1), 1-19. Retrieved from

Hawkins, B., Townsend, J., & Garst, B. A. (2016). Nature-based recreational therapy for military service members: A strengths approach. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(1), 55-74.

Gagnon, R. & Garst, B. (2015, March). Shifting our focus from what to how: Program quality through the lens of program implementation. CompassPoint, 25(1), 3-5.

Garst, B.A., Baughman, S., Whittington, A., & Gagnon, R.J. (2015). Influences of resident camp experiences on career choice: A case study of female alumnae. Research in Outdoor Education, 13(1), 59-82.

Garst, B. & McCrawley, P. (2015). Solving problems, ensuring relevance and facilitating change: the evolution of needs assessment within cooperative extension. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 3(2), 26-47.

Franz, N., Garst, B., & Gagnon, R.J. (2015). The cooperative extension program development model: Adapting to a changing context. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 3(2), 3-12.

Gagnon, R.J., Franz, N., Garst, B., & Bumpus, M.F. (2015). Factors impacting program delivery: The importance of implementation research in Extension. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 3(2), 68-82.

Gagnon, R.J., Garst, B., & Franz, N. (2015). Looking ahead: Envisioning the future of the Extension program model. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 3(2), 170-176.

Garst, B. & Gagnon, R.J. (2015). Exploring overparenting within the context of youth development programs. Journal of Youth Development, 10(1), 6-18.

Garst, B. & Ozier, L. (2015). Enhancing youth outcomes and organizational practices through a camp based reading program. Journal of Experiential Education, 38(4), 324-338.

Garst, B., Baughman, S., & Franz, N. (2014). Benchmarking professional development practices across youth-serving organizations. Journal of Extension, 52(5). Retrieved from:

Ventura, A., Anzman-Frasca, S., & Garst, B. (2014). Mealtimes at residential summer camps: What are camp staff doing to promote campers' healthy eating behaviors? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 46(60), 491-498.

Duerden, M., Witt, P., Garst, B., Bialeschki, D., Schwarzlose, T. & Norton, K. (2014). The impact of camp employment on the workforce development of emerging adults. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32(1), 26-44.

Garst, B., Erceg, L., & Walton, E. (2013). Injury and illness benchmarking and prevention for children and staff attending U.S. camps: Promising practices and policy implications. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 4(2), article 5. Retrieved from

Ventura A. & Garst, B. (2013). Residential summer camp: A new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(64). Retrieved from

Garst, B., Baughman, S., Franz, N., & Seidel, R. (2013). Strengthening families: Exploring the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning and parenting. Journal of Experiential Education, 36(1), 65-77.

Garst, B., Franz, N., Peters, B., Baughman, S., & Smith, C. (2012). Using single-case participatory action research as a methodology to explore Appalachian summer camp communities. PRISM- A Journal of Regional Engagement, 1(1). Retrieved from

Garst, B., Browne, L., & Bialeschki, M.D. (2011). Youth development and the camp experience. In L. Allen and R. Barcelona (Eds.), New Directions for Youth Development (Special Issue on Recreation as a Developmental Experience), 130, 73-87. Jossey-Bass.

Browne, L., Garst, B., & Bialeschki, M.D. (2011). Engaging youth in environmental sustainability: Impact of the Camp2Grow Program. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(3), 70-85.

Garst, B., Nichols, A., Martz, J., McNeely, N.N., Bovitz, L., Frebershauser, D., Garton, M., LeMenestrel, S., & Walahoski, J. (2011). Examining youth camping outcomes across multiple states: The National 4-H Camping Research Consortium. Journal of Youth Development, 6(1). Retrieved from

Honors and Awards

-Nominated by the College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences for the Provost Teaching with Technology Award, Clemson University (2020-2021)
-Served on a consensus study committee through the National Academy of Sciences to develop a report on the evidence supporting the summertime experiences of children and adolescents and associated outcomes (2018-2019)
-Invited to participate in the President's Leadership Institute through Clemson University (2017-2018)
-Received the Excellence in Graduate Teaching Award through the College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences, Clemson University (2017-2018)
-Developed a graduate course (YDP 8880 Youth Development and Nature) that was nominated for the Outstanding Course Award through the Instructional Technology Council and the Excellence in Online Teaching Award through the Online Learning Consortium (2015-2016)
-Received the Long-Term Contributions to Camp Research Award from the Association of Camp Nursing (2011)


Garst Out-of-School Time Lab

Association of Camp Nursing

College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences
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