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College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences

Faculty and Staff Profile

Jeffrey Hallo

Professor and Graduate Coordinator

Office: 100 Sirrine Hall

Phone: 864-656-3237


Vita: View

Educational Background

Ph.D. Natural Resources
University of Vermont 2007

M.S. Technical (Project) Management
Johns Hopkins University 2001

B.S. Wildlife/Fisheries Biology and Chemistry
Frostburg State University 1998

Courses Taught

  • Research Methods (undergraduate, online and traditional delivery)

  • Recreation Policymaking (undergraduate, traditional delivery)

  • Advanced Recreation Resource Management (undergraduate, traditional delivery)

  • Creative Inquiry (undergraduate research experiences)

  • Research Methods in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management (graduate, traditional and online delivery)

  • Human Dimension of Outdoor Recreation and Public Land Visitation (graduate; traditional, hybrid, and online delivery, international – Kenya; contract courses for the U.S. National Park Service and Delaware State Parks)

  • Grants and Alternative Financing for Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management (graduate, traditional delivery)

  • MS Capstone: Applying Learning Outcomes to PRTM Issues and Organizations

  • Departmental honors course series - field research, research methods, and project presentation (undergraduate as a part of the PRTM Departmental Honors Program)


Jeffrey Hallo, Ph.D. is a Professor and the Graduate Coordinator in Clemson University’s Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. His research and teaching are focused on understanding, planning for, and managing visitor use in parks, forests, and other protected areas. He has authored or co-authored over 80 peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, books, or book chapters on these topics. He was an interviewed expert for news articles appearing in The Washington Post, National Geographic, Delta Sky Magazine, and WalletHub. In 2016, Jeff released his first children’s book titled Rosy Ralph Visits His National Parks. In 2017 and 2018 he received university awards for his graduate student mentoring and for his scholarship in scientific journals. In 2022, Jeff received an award for his Distinguished Service as the Interim Chair of the PRTM department.

Jeff has an expertise in parks and in large project administration, having both a M.S. in Technical/Project Management and having led or co-led numerous applied projects. His work has specifically focused on empirical studies of visitor use management; park visitors/tourists; potential park visitors/tourists and stakeholders; natural, historical, and culturally-based recreation; carrying capacity; sustainable transportation planning; scenic driving/ORV recreation; and modeling of recreational use patterns. Methods, tools, and concepts used in this research include indicator/threshold-based planning and management frameworks (including the federal Interagency Visitor Use Management Council’s Visitor Use Management Framework), normative approaches, GPS, GIS, automated field cameras, visual simulations, surveys, and qualitative research techniques (e.g., focus groups, interviewing, Photovoice, and rigorous qualitative analysis).

Jeff’s projects have occurred at places such as Cumberland Island National Seashore, Pinnacles National Park, Cape Cod National Seashore, Acadia National Park, Congaree National Park, the Blue Ridge Parkway, Petra Archeological Park (Jordan), Kenai Fjords National Park, Denali National Park, Sumter National Forest, Tennessee State Parks, Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya), ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve, and El Yunque National Forest (Puerto Rico). Jeff completed a project at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area to conduct visitor and carrying capacity studies to inform one of the first formal Visitor Use Management Plans in the U.S. National Park Service. Also, he led a multi-year, multi-university study at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to help support the implementation of a management strategy to protect an endangered public recreation experience related to a marine mammal of global concern – the polar bear. Many of these projects support formal planning efforts and documents. The overall intent of Jeff’s work is to ensure that we sustainably and appropriately use parks, tourism sites, and protected areas for public enjoyment.

Jeff lives in Central, SC with his wife Lisa and their three young children Cooper, Ashlyn, and Bridger. Jeff greatly enjoys experiencing parks and the natural world with his family.

Research Interests

  • Park and protected area planning and management

  • Visitor use management

  • Carrying capacity

  • Outdoor recreation

  • Sustainable transportation and motorized recreation in parks

  • Visitor and nature-based tourist assessments - distributions, counts, attitudes, needs

  • Research Publications

    (* indicates graduate student advisee)

    Wilson, T.*, Hallo, J., Dvorak, R., Peterson, B., Duffy, L., Fefer, J., Freimund, W. (in press). Last chance to see? Motivations and outcomes of the last chance tourism experience in Arctic Alaska. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

    Sabuhoro, E., Wright, B. A., Munanura, I. E., Powell, R. B., Hallo, J. C., & Layton, P. A. (2023). Exploring the impact of community conservation enterprises on household livelihoods around two wildlife areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 28(2), 103-120.

    Peterson*, B. A., Brownlee, M. T., Beeco, J. A., Hallo, J. C., White, D. L., & Joyce, D. (2022). Spatiotemporal analysis to understand overflight travel patterns at Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 37, 100476.

    Henry, C. M.*, Hallo, J. C., Blacketer, M., Brownlee, M. T. J., Norman, W. C., Beeco, J. A. (accepted). “It felt like walking through a night sky”: Managing the visitor experience during biologically-based nighttime events. Event Management, 26(2), 387-403

    Fefer, J. P.*, Hallo, J. C., Collins, R. H., Baldwin, E. D., & Brownlee, M. T. (2021). From displaced to misplaced: Exploring the experience of visitors who were ‘crowded out’ of their recreation Destination. Leisure Sciences, 1-20.

    Peterson, B. A., Brownlee, M. T., Hallo, J. C., Beeco, J. A., White, D. L., Zajchowski, C. A., & Bowen, B. B. (2021). Grid analysis of visitor travel patterns in a dispersed outdoor recreation setting. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 39(2), 64-82.

    Fefer, J.*, Hallo, J., Dvorak, R., Brownlee, M., Collins, R. (2020). Pictures of polar bears: Using Visitor-Employed Photography to identify experience indicators in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Journal of Environmental Management, 269, 110779.

    Peterson, B., Brownlee, M., Hallo, J., Beeco, A., White, D., Sharp, R., & Cribbs, T. (2020). Spatiotemporal variables to understand visitor travel patters: A management-centric approach. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 31, 100316.

    Nettles, J. M., Brownlee, M. T., Sharp, R. L., Blacketer, M. P., & Hallo, J. C. (2020). Norm stability: Visitors’ perceptions of crowding at Cumberland Island National Seashore. Leisure Sciences, 1-18.

    Sabuhoro, E., Wright, B. A., Powell, R. B., Hallo, J. C., Layton, P. A., & Munanura, I. E. (2020). Perceptions and behaviors of indigenous populations regarding illegal use of protected area resources in East Africa’s mountain gorilla landscape. Environmental Management, 1-10.

    Miller, L. B.*, Hallo, J. C., Dvorak, R. G., Fefer, J. P., Peterson, B. A., & Brownlee, M. T. J. (2020). On the edge of the world: Examining pro-environmental outcomes of last chance tourism in Kaktovik, Alaska. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-20.

    Riungu, G.*, Hallo, J.; Backman, K.; Brownlee, M., Larson, L., & Beeco, J. A. (2020). Water-based recreation management: A normative approach to reviewing boating thresholds. Lake and Reservoir Management, 1-16.

    Smith, B.*, & Hallo, J. (2019). Informing good lighting in parks through visitors’ perceptions and experiences. International Journal of Sustainable Lighting, 21(02), 47-65.

    Citarella, M. M.*, Hallo, J. C., Fefer, J. P.*, Brownlee, M. T., J., Powell, R. B., & Dudley, K. J (2019). Taking the plunge: Enhancing the visitor experience in waterfall-based state parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. doi: 10.18666/JPRA-2019-91

    Wilcer, S. R.*, Larson, L. R., Hallo, J. C., & Baldwin, E. (2019). Exploring the diverse motivations of day hikers: Implications for hike marketing and management. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. doi: 10.18666/JPRA-2019-9176

    Alazaizeh, M.*, Hallo, J., Backman, S., Norman, W., & Vogel, M. (2019). Giving voice to heritage tourists: Indicators for a sustainable heritage experience at Petra, Jordan. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 17:3, 269-284.

    Munanura, I. E. *, Backman, K. F., Sabuhoro, E., Powell, R. B., Hallo, J. C. (2018). The perceived forms and drivers of forest dependence at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Environmental Sociology, 4(3), 269-284.

    Munanura, I. E. *, Backman, K. F., Hallo, J. C., Powell, R. B., Sabuhoro, E. (2018). Understanding the relationship between livelihood constraints of poor forest-adjacent residents, and illegal forest use, at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Conservation and Society, 16(3), 291-304.

    Wilcer, S. R. *, Larson, L. R., Hallo, J. C., & Baldwin, B. (2018). First Day Hikes: Participation, impacts and implications for the future. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 36, 213-226.

    Wilson, D. L.*, Hallo, J. C., McGuire, F. A., Sharp, J. L., & Mainella, F. P. (2018). Transportation mode choice among Baby Boomer visitors in National Parks: Exploring the concept of Freedom: Travel Behaviour and Society, 13, 61-70.

    Hallo, J., Hughes, M., Brownlee, M., Manning, R., & Fefer, J. (2018). The visitor carrying capacity of a barrier island: A norm-based approach at Cumberland Island National Seashore. Tourism in Marine Environments, 13(2-3), 121-140.

    Keith, S. J.*, Larson, L. R, Shafer, C. S., Hallo, J. C., Fernandez, M. (2018). Greenway use and preferences in diverse urban communities: Implications for trail design and management. Landscape and Urban Planning, 172, 47-59.

    Wilson, D.*, Hallo, J. C., Sharp, J. L., Mainella, F. P., & McGuire, F. A. (2017). Activity selection among baby boomer national park visitors: The search for a sense of adventure. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 19, 37-45.

    Mgonja, J.*, Backman, K., Backman, S., Moore, D., & Hallo, J. (2017). A structural model to assess international visitors’ perceptions about local foods in Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(6), 796-816.

    Munanura, I.*, Backman, K.; Hallo, J., & Powell, R. (2016). Perceptions of tourism revenue sharing impacts on Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda: A Sustainable Livelihoods framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(6), 796-816.

    Hughes, M. D.*, Hallo, J. C., & Norman, W. C. (2016). Re-conceptualizing recreation-based social worlds: Examining the core characteristics of social worlds. Leisure/Loisir, 40(2), 149-174.

    Mgonja, J. T.*, Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., Moore, D. D., & Hallo, J. C. (2016). Factors moderating and mediating visitors’ perceptions about local foods in Tanzania. Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism, 2(2), 87-106.

    Miller, Z. D.*, Quigley, C. F., Hallo, J, Dogbey, J., Che, M., & Seno, S. (2016). Investigating wildlife and grazing perspectives of Kenyan university students. Journal for Nature Conservation, 32, 44–52.

    Larson, L. R., Keith, S. J., Fernandez, M., Hallo, J. C., Shafer, C. S., & Jennings, V. (2016). Ecosystem services and urban greenways: What's the public's perspective? Ecosystem Services, 22, 111-116.

    Alazaizeh, M.*, Hallo, J., Backman, S., Norman, W., & Vogel, M. (2016). Value orientations and heritage tourism management at Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. Tourism Management, 57, 149–158.

    Alazaizeh, M.*, Hallo, J., Backman, S., Norman, W., & Vogel, M. (2016). Crowding standards at Petra Archaeological Park: A comparative study of McKercher’s five types of heritage tourists. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11(4), 364-381.

    Skibins, J. C.*, Powell, R. B., & Hallo, J. C. (2016). Lucky 13: Conservation implications of broadening ‘Big 5’ flagship species recognition in East Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(7), 1024-1040.

    Huang, W.-J., Beeco, J. A., Hallo, J. C., Norman, W. C. (2016). Bundling attractions for rural tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(10), 1387-1402.

    Manning, R., E., Rovelstad, C. Moore, J. Hallo, and B. Smith*. (2015). Indicators and standards of quality for viewing the night sky in the national parks. Park Science 32(2).

    Quigley, C. F., Dogbey, J., Che, S. M., & Hallo, J. (2015). Shared understandings: environmental perspectives of Kenyan community members and teachers. Environmental Education Research, 21(7), 1079-1104.

    Quigley, C. F, Dogbey, J., Che, M. & J., Hallo. (2015) Investigating Local Sustainable Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers. Cultural Studies in Science Education, 10, 551-580.

    Brownlee, M. T. J.*, Hallo, J. C., Jodice, L. W., Moore, D. D., Powell, R. B., & Wright, B. A. (2014). Place attachment and marine recreationists’ attitudes towards offshore wind energy development. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(2), 263-284.

    Quigley, C. F., Miller, Z. D.*, Dogbey, J., Che, M., & Hallo, J. (2014). No one should destroy the forest: Using photo-based vignette interviews to understand Kenyan teachers’ views of the environment. International Journal of Science Education, 36, 2937-2957.

    Hughes, M. D.*, Hallo, J. C., & Norman, W. C. (2014). Diversifying rural economies with natural resources: The difference between local and regional OHV trail destinations. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 9(2), 149-167.

    Beeco, J. A.*, & Hallo, J. C. (2014). GPS tracking of visitor use: Factors influencing visitor spatial behavior on a complex trail system. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32(2), 43–61.

    Beeco, J. A.*, Hallo, J. C., & Brownlee, M. T. J. (2014). GPS visitor tracking and recreation suitability mapping: Tools for understanding and managing visitor use patterns. Landscape and Urban Planning, 127, 136–145.

    Miller, Z. D.*, Hallo, J. C., Sharp, J. L., Powell, R. B., & Lanham, D. J. (2014). Birding by ear: A study of recreational specialization and soundscape preference. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 19(6), 498-511.

    Huang, W.-J., Norman, W. C., Hallo, J. C., McGehee, N. G., McGee, J., Goetcheus, C. L. (2014). Serendipity and independent travel. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(2), 169–183

    Munanura, I.*, Backman, K.; Moore, D., Hallo, J., Powell, R. (2014). Household poverty dimensions influencing forest dependence at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. An application of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. Natural Resources, 5, 1031-1047.

    Dogbey, J., Quigley, C. F., Che, M., & Hallo, J. (2014). Using smartphone technology in environmental sustainability education: The case of the Maasai Mara Region in Kenya. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 6(1), 1-16.

    Brownlee, M. T. J.*, Hallo, J. C., Moore, D. D., Powell, R. B., & Wright, B. A. (2014). Attitudes toward water conservation: The influence of site-specific factors and beliefs in climate change. Society & Natural Resources, 27, 964-982.

    Manning, R., Valliere, W., & Hallo, J. C. (2014). Busing through the wilderness: Managing the “near-wilderness” experience at Denali. Alaska Park Science, 13, 59-65.

    Quigley, C. F, Dogbey, J., Che, M., Hallo, J., & Womac, P. (2014). Through their lens: The potential of photovoice for understanding environmental perspectives among Kenyan teachers. The Qualitative Report, 19(9), 1-23.

    Schmalz, D. L., Hallo, J. C., Griffin, S. F., Kusch, M., & Arce, M. (2013). Development of a Healthy Parks Healthy People Strategic Action Plan for Hot Springs National Park. Park Science, 30(2), 37–43.

    Brownlee, M. T. J.*, Hallo, J. C., Wright, B. A., Moore, D. D., & Powell, R. B. (2013). Visiting a climate-influenced national park: The stability of climate change perceptions. Environmental Management, 52(5), 1132-1148.

    Beeco, J. A.*, Hallo, J. C., English, W., & Giumetti, G. W. (2013). The importance of spatial nested data in understanding the relationship between visitor use and landscape impacts. Applied Geography, 45, 147-157.

    Brownlee, M. T. J.*, & Hallo, J. C. (2013). Motivations to visit designated wilderness at Cumberland Island National Seashore. International Journal of Wilderness, 13, 34-40.

    Skibins, J. C.*, Powell, R. B., & Hallo, J. C. (2013). Charisma and conservation: Charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22, 959–982.

    Smith, B. L.*, & Hallo, J. C. (2013). A system-wide assessment of night resources and night recreation in the U.S. national parks: A case for expanded definitions. Park Science, 29(2), 54-59.

    McGehee, N. G., Boley, B. B., Hallo, J.C., McGee, J. A., Norman, W. C., Goetcheus, C. & Oh, C.-O. (2013). Doing sustainability: An application of an inter-disciplinary, mixed-method, and multi-university approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21, 355-375.

    Brownlee, M. T. J.*, Powell, R. B., & Hallo, J. C. (2013). A review of the foundational processes that influence beliefs in climate change: Opportunities for environmental education research. Environmental Education Research, 19, 1-20.

    Brownlee, M.*, Hallo, J., & Krohn, B. (2013). Park visitors’ perceptions of climate change: Awareness, concern, and behavioral responses. Managing Leisure, 18, 1-21.

    Hallo, J. C., Beeco, J. A.*, Goetcheus, C. A., McGee. J., McGehee, N. G., & Norman, W. C. (2012). GPS as a method for assessing spatial and temporal use distributions of nature-based tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 51(5) 591-606.

    Beeco, J. A.*, Huang, W-J.*, Hallo, J. C., Norman, W. C., McGehee, N. G., McGee, J., Goetcheus, C. (2012). GPS tracking of travel routes of wanders and planners. Tourism Geographies, 15(3), 551-573.

    McKay, A. D.*, Brownlee, M. T. J.*, & Hallo, J. C. (2012). Changes in visitors’ environmental focus during an appreciative recreation experience. Journal of Leisure Research, 44(2), 179-200.

    Skibins, J. C.*, Hallo, J. C., Sharp, J. L., & Manning, R. E. (2012). Quantifying the role of viewing the Denali ‘Big 5’ in visitor satisfaction and awareness: Conservation implications for flagship recognition and resource management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 17(2), 112–128.

    Brownlee, M.*, & Hallo, J. (2012). Climate change segmentation groups at Kenai Fjords National Park: Insight into visitors’ perceptions. Alaska Park Science, 10(2), 19-21.

    Beeco, J. A.*, Hallo, J.C., Baldwin E. D., & McGuire, F. A. (2011). An examination of the guided night hiking experience in parks and protected areas. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(4), 72-88.

    Manning, R., Valliere, W., Anderson, L, Stanfield McCown, R., Pettengill, P., Reigner, N., Lawson, S., Newman, P., Budruk, M., Laven, D., Hallo, J., Park, L., Bacon, J., Abbe, D., van Riper, C., Goonan, K. (2011). Defining, measuring, monitoring, and managing the sustainability of parks for outdoor recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(3), 24-37.

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