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College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences

Faculty and Staff Profile

William Norman


Office: 275B Lehotksy Hall

Phone: 864-617-3582

Fax: 864-656-2226

Educational Background

Ph.D. Recreation, Park and Leisure Services
University of Minnesota 1995

M.S. Park and Recreation Resources
Michigan State University 1987

B.S. Recreation Resource Management
University of Minnesota 1980

Courses Taught

PRTM 1010 Concepts of Leisure
PRTM 2200 Conceptual Foundations of Parks, Recreation and Tourism
PRTM 3010 Recreation and Society
PRTM 3420 Introduction to Tourism Management
PRTM 3430 Spatial Aspect of Tourist Behavior
PRTM 3450 Tourism Management
PRTM 3490 Survey of Tourism Sites
PRTM 3920 Special Event Management
PRTM 4410 Commercial Recreation
PRTM 4440 Tour Planning and Operations
PRTM 4460 Community Tourism Development
PRTM 6410 Commercial Recreation
PRTM 6440 Tour Planning and Operations
PRTM 6460 Community Tourism Development
PRTM 8400 Tourism Planning


Bill Norman is a Professor in Clemson University's Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management and the former Director of the Recreation, Travel and Tourism Institute. Dr. Norman works closely with graduate students from around the world conducting theoretically-based and applied recreation and tourism research that assists South Carolina's tourism industry and leisure service providers as well as other industry sectors (e.g., aquaculture). Prior to joining Clemson University in 1995, Bill was a Marketing Specialist with the University of Wisconsin-Extension'ss Tourism Research and Resource Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

Research Interests

Dr. Norman's research focuses on leisure travel decision making, recreation behavior, leisure constraints, tourism marketing and the study of niche travel markets (i.e., agritourism, heritage tourism, sport tourism, fisheries tourism, culinary tourism, and nature-based tourism). His current research examines the contribution and impact of tourism to the sustainability of South Carolina's rural and coastal communities.

Research Publications

An, Y., Mo, J. W., Norman, W. C. (2021). Investigating residents ’attitudes towards tourism growth in downtown Greenville, SC: the effect of demographic variables. Sustainability, 13(15), 8474.

Henry, C. M., Hallo, J. C., Blacketer, M., Brownlee, M. T. J., Norman, W. C., & Beeco, A. (September, 2021). “It felt like walking through a night sky”: managing the visitor experience during biologically-based nighttime events. Event Management.

Dudley, K. D. Duffy, L. N., Terry, W. C., & Norman, W. C. (June, 2021). The historical structuring of the U.S. tourism workforce: a critical review. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Dudley, K. D. Duffy, L. N., Terry, W. C., & Norman, W. C. (June, 2021). Situational Analysis as a critical methodology: mapping the tourism system in post-Katrina New Orleans. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Coskun, G. & Norman, W. (2021). The influence of impulsiveness on local food purchase behavior in a tourism context. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 69(1), 7-18.

Coskun, G., Jodice, L. W., & Norman, W. (2020). Which coastal vacay enjoyer wants local oysters, him or her? Gastronomy and Tourism, 5(1) 1-16.

Kim, G., Duffy, L. N., Jodice, L. J. & Norman, W. C. (2020). Tourists’ attitudes toward the benefits of Mariculture: a case of decision-making in marine tourism in Southeast USA. Tourism in Marine Environments, 15(1), 29-47.

Jodice, L. & Norman, W. C. (2020). Comparing importance and confidence for production and source attributes of seafood among residents and tourists in South Carolina and Florida coastal communities. Appetite, 146(Article#: 104510).

Cho, H., Joo, D., Moore, D., & Norman, W. C. (October, 2019). Sport tourists’ nostalgia and its effect on sport tourists' attitude and intentions: A multilevel approach. Tourism Management Perspectives, 32.

Kang, S., Jodice, L., & Norman, W. C. (2020). How do tourists search for tourism information via smartphone before and during their trip? Tourism Research Review, 45(1), 57-68.

Taylor, L. L. & Norman, W. C. (2019). The influence of mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(1), 76-90.

Alazaizeh, M. M., Hallo, J. C., Backman, S. J., Norman, W. C., & Vogel, M. A. (2019). Giving voice to heritage tourists: indicators of quality for a sustainable heritage experience at Petra, Jordan. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 17(3), 269-284.

Kitheka, B. M., Baldwin, E. D., & Norman, W. C. (2018). Park-based urban regeneration and tourism evolution in a cityscape: a case for Chattanooga-TN. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 18(1), 43-64.

Ying, T. Wen, J., Law, R, Wang, L. & Norman, W. C. (2018). Examining the efficacy of self-classification approach in segmenting special-interest tourists: food tourism case. Asia Pacific Journal of Travel Research, 23(10), 961-974.

Bachman, J. R., Norman, W. C., Backman, K. F., & Hopkins, C. D. (2017, July). The role of moderating variables on music festival volunteer management. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 18(3), 225-243).

Cho, H., Lee, H. W., Moore, D., Norman, W. C., & Ramshaw, G. (2017). A multilevel approach to scale development in sport tourist nostalgia. Journal of Travel Research, 56(8), 1094-1106.

Kim, G., Duffy, L. N., Jodice, L. W., & Norman, W. C. (2017). Coastal Tourist Interest in Value-Added, Aquaculture-Based, Culinary Tourism Opportunities. Coastal Management, 45(4), 310-329.

Ying, T. & Norman, W. (2017). Personality Effects on the Social Network Structure of Boundary-Spanning Personnel in the Tourism Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(5), 1-24.

Hughes, M., Hallo, J. C. & Norman, W. C. (2016). Re-conceptualizing recreation-based social worlds: examining the core characteristics of social worlds. Leisure/Losir, 40(2) 149-174.

Alazaizeh, M. M., Hallo, J. C., Backman, S. J., Norman, W. C. & Vogel, M. A. (2016). Value orientations and heritage tourism management at Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. Tourism Management, 57, 149-158.

Alazaizeh, M. M., Hallo, J. C., Backman, S. J., Norman, W. C. & Vogel, M. A. (2016). Crowding standards at Petra Archaeological Park: A comparative study of McKercher’s five types of heritage tourists. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11(4) 364-381.

Huang, W-J., Beeco, J. Hallo, J. C., & Norman, W. C. (2016). Bundling attractions for rural tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(10), 1387-1402.

Frash, R. E, Blose, J. E., Norman, W. C., & Patience, M. (2016). Healthy parks, happy people: An exploratory study of a county park system, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 34(1) 84-100.

Bachman, J. R., Norman, W. C., Hopkins, C. D., & Brookover R. S. (2016). Examining the role of self-concept theory on motivation, satisfaction, and intent to return of music festival volunteers. Event Management, 20(10) 41-52.

Huang, W-J., Ramshaw, G. P., & Norman, W. C. (2016). Diasporic homecoming or transnational tourism? Diaspora tourism experience of second-generation immigrants. Tourism Geographies, 18(1) 59-79.

Ying, T., Norman, W., and Zhou, L. (2016). Is social class still working? Revisiting the social class division in tourist consumption. Current Issues in Tourism, 19, 1405-1424.

Ying, T., Norman, W, & Zhou, Y. (2016). Online networking in the tourism industry: A webometrics and hyperlink network analysis. Journal of Travel Research. 55(1) 16-33.

Liu, B. & Norman, W. C. (2015). Developing a conceptual framework to understand local residents’ contribution in online travel communities. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 4(4) 367-382.

Huang, W., Norman, W. C., Ramshaw, G. P., & Haller, W.J. (2015). Transnational leisure experience of
second-generation immigrants: The case of Chinese-Americans. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 102-124.

Shakona, M., Backman, K., Backman, S., Norman, W. C., & Luo, Y. (2015). Understanding the traveling behavior of Muslims in the United States. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality
Research, 9(1) 22-35.

Bachman, J. R., Backman, K. F., and Norman, W. C. (2014). A segmentation of music volunteers at the 2013 Austin City Limits Music Festival. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 15(4) 298-315.

Cho, H., Ramshaw, G., & Norman, W. C. (2014). Sport and Nostalgia: The classification of nostalgia in sport tourism. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 19(2) 145-167.

Huang, W-J., Norman, W. C., Hallo, J. C., McGehee, N. G., McGee, J., Goetcheus, C. L. (2014). Serendipity and Independent Travel. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(32) 169-183.

Hughes, M., Beeco, J. A., Hallo, J. & Norman, W. C., (2014). Diversifying rural economies with natural resources: The differences between local and regional OHV trail destinations. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 9, 149-167.

Liu, B., Norman, W. C., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2014). A flash of culinary tourism: An exploratory study of online food photography. Journal of Tourism Culture & Communication, 13, 5-18.

Beeco, J.A., Huang, W., Hallo, J.C., Norman, W.C., McGehee, N.G., McGee, J., & Goetcheus, C. (2013). GPS tracking of travel routes of wanderers and planners. Tourism Geographies, 13, 551-576.

Lacher, G. R., Oh, C. O., Jodice, L. J., & Norman, W. C. (2013). The Role of Heritage and Cultural. Journal of Travel Research, 52, 534-546.

Jordan, E. J., Norman, W. C., & Vogt, C. A. (2013). A cross-cultural comparison of online travel information search behaviors. Tourism Management Perspectives, 6, 15-22.

McGehee, N.G., Boley, B., Hallo, J., McGee, J., Norman, W., Goetchus, C., & Oh, C. O. (2013). Doing Sustainability: A Mixed-methods, inter-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21, 355-375.

Dixon, A.W., Oh, C. O., Backman, S., Norman, W., Backman, K. & Henry, M. (2012). Valuing the private consumption benefits of the college football game experience. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 5, 172-191.

Liu, B., Norman, W. C, Backman, S. J., Cuneo K., & Condrasky, M. (2012). Shoot, taste, and post:
An exploratory study of food and tourism experiences in an online image-sharing community. EReview
of Tourism Research, 12(3). 1-12.

Hallo, J. C., Beeco, J. A., Holly, F. M., Goetcheus, C. A., McGee. J., McGehee, N. G. & Norman, W. C. (2012). GPS as a method for assessing spatial and temporal use distributions of nature-based tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 591-606.

Song, H. J., Lee, C. K., Norman, W. C. & Han, H. (2012). The Role of responsible gambling strategy in forming behavioral intention: An application of a model of goal-directed behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 512-523.

Dixon, Anthony W., Backman, Sheila J., Backman, Kenneth F. and Norman, W. (2012) Expenditure Based Segmentation of Sport Tourist. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 17(1) 5-21.

Draper, J., Woosnam, K. M., & Norman, W. C. (2011). Tourism use history: Exploring a new framework for understanding residents’ attitudes toward tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 50, 64-77.

College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences
College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences | 116 Edwards Hall