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Contact Information

P: 864-656-3416

Campus Location

118 Kinard Laboratory


Monday - Friday:
8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.


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Apparao Rao

Physics and Astronomy

Endowed Professor

Founding Director, Clemson Nanomaterials Institute
R. A. Bowen Endowed Professor of Physics
Fellow of the American Physical Society
Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science
Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors
Fellow of the Materials Research Society

Duke Energy Innovation Center 200 [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 200A [Research Laboratory Service]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 206A [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 207A [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 207B [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 209 [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 211 [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 211A [Lab]
Duke Energy Innovation Center 211B [Lab]
Kinard Lab 202C [Office]

Educational Background

Postdoctoral Research Associate, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, 1991
Ph.D., Condensed Matter Physics, University of Kentucky, 1989
M.S., Physics, University of Kentucky, 1985
B.S., Physics, University of Bombay, 1983

Profile/About Me

Apparao M. Rao joined the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University in Fall 2000. He currently serves as the Robert A. Bowen Endowed Professor of Physics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University and the founding director of the Clemson Nanomaterials Institute (CNI). He is known for developing Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for characterizing carbon nanomaterials, and for developing the liquid-injection based synthesis methods for carbon nanotubes. Because of his sustained research in nanomaterials and for building competitiveness in the State of South Carolina, the Governor of South Carolina, the Honorable Nikki Haley conferred on him in 2014 the State’s highest honor - the Governor’s award for excellence in scientific research. Four prestigious scientific societies - the American Physical Society , the American Association for the Advancement of Science , the Materials Research Society and the National Academy of Inventors - elected him as a Fellow for lifetime recognition of his research, leadership or service to the materials field. Rao is the first faculty member at Clemson and in the entire State of South Carolina to earn Fellow status in the Material Research Society. Rao is an adjunct professor at the Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning (SSSIHL), India where he initiated a nanomaterials program, and continues to directs research projects of M.S. and Ph.D. students at SSSIHL. He is also the Brahm Prakash Visiting Chair Professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Research Interests

His research at Clemson University focuses on carbon and other nanomaterials' fundamental properties and their utility in energy generation (thermoelectrics, triboelectrics, and piezoelectrics) and energy storage (supercapacitors and batteries) technologies. Future interests include using machine learning to accelerate discovery and development at CNI and quantum technologies. His broad research interests are evident from his list of research publications which can be found at

Research Group (Lab)

CNI is located at the Clemson University Advanced Materials Research Laboratory in Anderson County. The Institute specializes in the fundamental properties and applications of a broad range of nanomaterials. It is developing cutting-edge multidisciplinary research that can widen the frontiers of nanoscience and significantly impact industrial technologies. Established in 2013, CNI contains approximately 6,000 square feet of research space and houses various synthesis and characterization equipment. CNI has seven active agreements with industrial partners, and nearly 10 faculty members and 25 students and postdocs use the facility for various collaborative projects. Recently, ATLIS Motor Vehicles, Inc. and Clemson University have partnered to advance the development of electric-vehicle batteries that charge faster, last longer, and can be scaled to fit a variety of vehicle classes. ATLIS is developing battery cells and packs to power the Atlis XP Platform and XT Truck, and the associated battery research is being jointly executed at CNI.

Courses Taught

General Physics Course in Mechanics, Heat and Sound
General Physics Course in Electricity, Magnetism, Optics & Relativity
Calculus-based Physics Course in Modern Physics
Solid-State Physics
Methods of Spectroscopy
Selected Research Topics

Selected Publications

Selected Publications

“Stacked vanadium pentoxide–zinc oxide interface for optically-chargeable supercapacitors,” Pankaj Singh Chauhan, Sumana Kumar, Anindita Mondal, Pragya Sharma, Mihir N. Parekh, Vinod Panwar, A. M. Rao, and Abha Misra, J. Mater. Chem. A, 11, 95-107 (2023).

“A tailored electrolyte for safe and durable potassium ion batteries,” L Fan, H Xie, Y Hu, Z Caixiang, A. M. Rao, J. Zhou, and B. Lu, Energy & Environmental Science, 16, 305-315 (2023).

“All-surface-state potassium storage enabled ultra-stable potassium cathode,”
J. Hao, H. Xia, A. M. Rao, Y. He, J. Zhou, and B. Lu, Energy Storage Materials, 53, 148-155 (2022).

“Thermoelectric figure-of-merit from Peltier cooling,” S. Bhattacharya, H. Behlow, I. Rancu, A. M. Rao, and H. J. Goldsmid, Journal of Applied Physics 132 (17), 175106 (2022).

“Coupling Low?Tortuosity Carbon Matrix with Single?Atom Chemistry Enables Dendrite?Free Potassium?Metal Anode,” D. Zhang, X. Ma, L. Wu, J. Wen, F. Li, J. Zhou, A. M. Rao, and B, Lu, Advanced Energy Materials, 2203277 (2022).

“A Novel Route to Fibers with Incongruent and Volatile Crystalline Semiconductor Cores: GaAs,” Thomasina Zaengle, Ursula J Gibson, Thomas W Hawkins, Colin McMillen, Basanta Ghimire, A. M. Rao, John Ballato, ACS Photonics, 9, 1058-1064 (2022).

“Phonon anharmonicity in binary chalcogenides for efficient energy harvesting”, Prakash Parajuli, Sriparna Bhattacharya, Rahul Rao, Apparao M Rao, Materials Horizons 9, 1602 – 1622 (2022).

“Green Synthesis of a Novel Porous Gold-curcumin Nanocomposite for Super-Efficient Alcohol Oxidation”, Sai Prasad Nayak, Lakshman K. Ventrapragada, Sai Sathish Ramamurthy, J. K. Kiran Kumar, Apparao M. Rao, Nano Energy, 94, 106966 (2022).

“Surface-substituted Prussian blue analogue cathode for sustainable potassium-ion batteries”, J. Ge, L. Fan, A. M. Rao, J. Zhou, and B. Lu, Nature Sustainability, (2021).

“Prospects of Electrode Materials and Electrolytes for Practical Potassium Based Batteries”, L Fan, Y Hu, A. M. Rao, J. Zhou, Z. Hou, C. Wang, and B. Lu, Small Methods, 2101131 (2021).

“In-situ observation of trapped carriers in organic metal halide perovskite films with ultra-fast temporal and ultra-high energetic resolutions”, K. Kobbekaduwa, S. Shrestha, P. Adhikari, E. Liu, L. Coleman, J. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. Zhou, Y. Bekenstein, F. Yan, A. M. Rao, H. Tsai, M. C Beard, W. Nie, and J. Gao, Nature Communications, 12 (2021).

“Sulfur-assisted Large-scale Synthesis of Graphene Microspheres for Superior Potassium-ion Batteries”, Q. Zhang, X. Cheng, C. Wang, A. M. Rao, and B. Lu, Energy and Environmental Science, 14, 965-974 (2021).

“Artificial SEI for Super-high Performance K-Graphite Anode”, Q. Liu, A. M. Rao, and B. Lu, Advanced Science (2021).

“Cell-like-carbon-micro-spheres for robust potassium anode”, H. Ding, J. Zhou, A. M. Rao and B. Lu, National Science Review (2020).

“High zT and its origin in Sb-doped GeTe single crystals”, V. K. Ranganayakulu, C-L. Chen, T-W. Lan, S. H. Yu, S. Yano, M. Ou, C-R. Hsing, C-M. Wei, M-Y. Chou, K-H. Chen, T-L. Hung, C-H. Lee, Y-Y. Chen, P. Parajuli, F. Liu, R. Rao, S. Bhattacharya, and A. M. Rao, Advanced Science, 7, 2002494 (2020) DOI: 10.1002/advs.202002494.

“Enhancing catalytic activity of tungsten disulfide through topology”, L. Wang, G. Zhou, H. Luo, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Zhao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, B. Lu, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2019,

“Quasi-one-dimensional Mo chains for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction”, L. Wang, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, G. Zhou, Y. Pei, S. Chen, J. Wang, A. M. Rao, H. Yang, B. Lu, Nano Energy, 61, 194-200 (2019).

“The intrinsic thermal conductivity of SnSe”, Pai-Chun Wei, S. Bhattacharya, J. He, S. Neeleshwar, R. Podila, Y. Y. Chen, and A. M. Rao, Nature, 539, Issue 7627, Pages
E1-E2 (2016).

A full list of publications can be found at

Selected Talks

"Surface-Substituted Prussian Blue Analogue Cathode for Sustainable Potassium-Ion Batteries", 241st ECS Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 2022.

"Recent Advances for Highly Stable Practical Potassium Ion Batteries", Invited talk at the TMS Spring Meeting, February 27–March 3, 2022, Anaheim, CA.

“Sulfur-assisted large-scale synthesis of graphene microspheres for superior potassium-ion batteries”, ACS Spring, April (2021).

“Waste heat driven microporous-carbon thermocells”, Sukanta Nandi, Sriparna Bhattacharya, Herbert Behlow, Apparao M. Rao, and Abha Misra, Virtual Conference on Thermoelectrics (VCT 2020) July 22, 2020.

“Quasi-one-dimensional Mo Chains for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction”, TMS Meeting, San Diego, CA, February (2020).

“Anharmonicity in binary chalcogenides through Raman spectroscopy”, Prakash Parajuli, Fengjiao Liu, Rahul Rao, V.K. Ranganayakulu, Tian-Wey Lan, P. C. Wei, Sriparna Bhattacharya, Yang-Yuan Chen, and Apparao M. Rao, Virtual Conference on Thermoelectrics (VCT 2020) July 21, 2020

“Role of Anharmonicity on Thermoelectric Properties of Fully Dense Single-Crystalline SnSe”, 236th ECS Meeting, Atlanta, GA, October (2019).

“Carbon-Based Air-Cathodes for Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Microbial Fuel Cells”, 236th ECS Meeting, Atlanta, GA, October (2019).

“Beyond Lithium Ion Batteries - Opportunities and Challenges”, The Southeastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society (SERMACS 2018), Augusta, GA, October (2018).


Member, Sigma Xi (2020- present).
Member, Materials Research Society, MRS (1985- present).
Member, American Physical Society, APS (1985- present).
Member, American Carbon Society, (1985- present).
Member, American Association for Advancement of Science (2002- present).
Member, American Chemical Society (2010- present).
Member, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials (TMS) Society (2006- present).
Member, IEEE, (2014)
Member, American Vacuum Society, (2002-2004).
Member, Electrochemical Society, (1999).

Honors and Awards

Brahm Prakash Endowed Visiting Chair Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India, 2021.
Elected as the Fellow of the Materials Research Society, 2020.
Elected as the Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, 2018
University Research, Scholarship and Artistic Achievement Award, 2018.
Governor's Award for Excellence in Scientific Research, South Carolina, 2014.
Alumni Award for Outstanding Achievement in Research, Clemson University, 2012.
Elected as the Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2011.
Appointed as the R. A. Bowen Endowed Professor of Physics, 2010.
Elected as the Fellow of the American Physical Society, 2008.


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Contact Information

P: 864-656-3416

Campus Location

118 Kinard Laboratory


Monday - Friday:
8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.