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Faculty and Staff Profile

William Norman


Office: 275B Lehotksy Hall
Phone: 864-617-3582
Fax: 864-656-2226

 Educational Background

Ph.D. Recreation, Park and Leisure Services
University of Minnesota 1995

M.S. Park and Recreation Resources
Michigan State University 1987

B.S. Recreation Resource Management
University of Minnesota 1980

 Courses Taught

PRTM 1010 Concepts of Leisure
PRTM 2200 Conceptual Foundations of Parks, Recreation and Tourism
PRTM 3010 Recreation and Society
PRTM 3420 Introduction to Tourism Management
PRTM 3430 Spatial Aspect of Tourist Behavior
PRTM 3450 Tourism Management
PRTM 3490 Survey of Tourism Sites
PRTM 3920 Special Event Management
PRTM 4410 Commercial Recreation
PRTM 4440 Tour Planning and Operations
PRTM 4460 Community Tourism Development
PRTM 6410 Commercial Recreation
PRTM 6440 Tour Planning and Operations
PRTM 6460 Community Tourism Development
PRTM 8400 Tourism Planning


Dr. William “Bill” C. Norman is a Professor in Clemson University\\\'s Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management and the former Director of the Recreation, Travel and Tourism Institute. Dr. Norman works closely with graduate students from around the world conducting theoretically-based and applied recreation and tourism research that assists South Carolina\\\'s tourism industry and leisure service providers as well as other industry sectors (e.g., aquaculture). Prior to joining Clemson University in 1995, Bill was a Marketing Specialist with the University of Wisconsin-Extension’s Tourism Research and Resource Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

 Research Interests

Dr. Norman's research focuses on leisure travel decision making, recreation behavior, leisure constraints, tourism marketing and the study of niche travel markets (i.e., agritourism, heritage tourism, sport tourism, fisheries tourism, culinary tourism, and nature-based tourism). His current research examines the contribution and impact of tourism to the sustainability of South Carolina's rural and coastal communities.

 Research Publications

Alazaizeh, M. M., Hallo, J. C., Backman, S. J., Norman, W. C. & Vogel, M. A. (Published online, June 2016). Value orientations and heritage tourism management at Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. Tourism Management, 57, 149-158.

Hughes, M., Hallo, J. C. & Norman, W. C. (Accepted 2016). Re-conceptualizing recreation-based social worlds: examining the core characteristics of social worlds. Leisure/Losir.

Huang, W-J., Beeco, J. Hallo, J. C., & Norman, W. C. (Published online January 26, 2016). Bundling attractions for rural tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Frash, R. E, Blose, J. E., Norman, W. C., & Patience, M. (2016). Healthy parks, happy people: An exploratory study of a county park system, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 34(1) 84-100.

Bachman, J. R., Norman, W. C., Hopkins, C. D., & Brookover R. S. (2016). Examining the role of self-concept theory on motivation, satisfaction, and intent to return of music festival volunteers. Event Management, 20(10) 41-52.

Huang, W-J., Ramshaw, G. P., & Norman, W. C. (2016). Diasporic homecoming or transnational tourism? Diaspora tourism experience of second-generation immigrants. Tourism Geographies, 18(1) 59-79.

Ying, T., Norman, W, & Zhou, Y. (2016). Online networking in the tourism industry: A webometrics and hyperlink network analysis. Journal of Travel Research. 55(1) 16-33.

Alazaizeh, M. M., Hallo, J. C., Backman, S. J., Norman, W. C. & Vogel, M. A. (Published online, December 7, 2015). Crowding standards at Petra Archaeological Park: A comparative study of McKercher’s five types of heritage tourists. Journal of Heritage Tourism.

Liu, B. & Norman, W. C. (2015). Developing a conceptual framework to understand local residents’ contribution in online travel communities. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 4(4) 367-382.

Huang, W., Norman, W. C., Ramshaw, G. P., & Haller, W.J. (2015). Transnational leisure experience of second-generation immigrants: The case of Chinese-Americans. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 102-124.

Shakona, M., Backman, K., Backman, S., Norman, W. C., & Luo, Y. (2015). Understanding the traveling behavior of Muslims in the United States. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 9(1) 22-35.

Bachman, J. R., Backman, K. F., and Norman, W. C. (2014). A segmentation of music volunteers at the 2013 Austin City Limits Music Festival. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 15(4) 298-315.

Cho, H., Ramshaw, G., & Norman, W. C. (2014). Sport and Nostalgia: The classification of nostalgia in sport tourism. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 19(2) 145-167.

Huang, W-J., Norman, W. C., Hallo, J. C., McGehee, N. G., McGee, J., Goetcheus, C. L. (2014). Serendipity and Independent Travel. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(32) 169-183.

Hughes, M., Beeco, J. A., Hallo, J. & Norman, W. C., (2014). Diversifying rural economies with natural resources: The differences between local and regional OHV trail destinations. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 9, 149-167.

Ying, T. & Norman, W. (2014). Personality Effects on the Social Network Structure of Boundary-Spanning Personnel in the Tourism Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Published on line on June 9, 2014.

Ying, T., Norman, W., and Zhou, L. (2014). Is social class still working? Revisiting the social class division in tourist consumption. Current Issues in Tourism. Published online on June 9, 2014.

Liu, B., Norman, W. C., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2014). A flash of culinary tourism: An exploratory study of online food photography. Journal of Tourism Culture & Communication, 13, 5-18.

Beeco, J.A., Huang, W., Hallo, J.C., Norman, W.C., McGehee, N.G., McGee, J., & Goetcheus, C. (2013). GPS tracking of travel routes of wanderers and planners. Tourism Geographies, 13, 551-576.

Lacher, G. R., Oh, C. O., Jodice, L. J., & Norman, W. C. (2013). The Role of Heritage and Cultural. Journal of Travel Research, 52, 534-546.

Jordan, E. J., Norman, W. C., & Vogt, C. A. (2013). A cross-cultural comparison of online travel information search behaviors. Tourism Management Perspectives, 6, 15-22.

McGehee, N.G., Boley, B., Hallo, J., McGee, J., Norman, W., Goetchus, C., & Oh, C. O. (2013). Doing Sustainability: A Mixed-methods, inter-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21, 355-375.

Dixon, A.W., Oh, C. O., Backman, S., Norman, W., Backman, K. & Henry, M. (2012). Valuing the private consumption benefits of the college football game experience. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 5, 172-191.

Hallo, J. C., Beeco, J. A., Holly, F. M., Goetcheus, C. A., McGee. J., McGehee, N. G. & Norman, W. C. (2012). GPS as a method for assessing spatial and temporal use distributions of nature-based tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 591-606.

Song, H. J., Lee, C. K., Norman, W. C. & Han, H. (2012). The Role of responsible gambling strategy in forming behavioral intention: An application of a model of goal-directed behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 512-523.

Dixon, Anthony W., Backman, Sheila J., Backman, Kenneth F. and Norman, W. (2012) Expenditure Based Segmentation of Sport Tourist. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 17(1) 5-21.

Draper, J., Woosnam, K. M., & Norman, W. C. (2011). Tourism use history: Exploring a new framework for understanding residents’ attitudes toward tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 50, 64-77.

Chancellor, H.C., Norman, W.C., Farmer, J.R., & Coe, E. E. (2010). Tourism organizations and land trusts: a sustainable approach to natural resource conservation? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(7), 863-875.

Loda, M. D., Coleman, B. C., Norman, W. C., & Esposito, M. (2010). Comparing credibility: A website versus publicity. Journal of Applied Marketing Theory, 1(1) 67-81.

Woosnam, K. M., & Norman, W. C. (2010). Measuring residents’ emotional solidarity with tourists: Scale development of Durkheim’s theoretical constructs. Journal of Travel Research, 49, 365-380.

Wooten, M. H. & Norman, W. C. (2009). Using the ratings grid in tourism/event management. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(3) 347-360.

Woosnam, K. M., Norman, W. C. & Ying, T. (2009). Exploring the theoretical framework of emotional solidarity between residents and tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 48, 245-258

Kleiber, D., McGuire, F. A.., Aybar-Damali, B. & Norman, W. (2008). Having more by doing less: The paradox of leisure constraints in later life. Journal of Leisure Research, 40, 343-359.

Wooten, M. H. & Norman, W. C. (2008). Differences in art festival visitors based on level of past experience. Event Management, 11(3) 109-121.

Deale, C., Norman, W., & Jodice, L.W. (2008). Marketing locally harvested shrimp to South Carolina coastal visitors: The development of a culinary tourism supply chain. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology. 6(1) 5-23.


William C. Noman CV