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Contact Information

P: 864-656-2328

Campus Location

132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634


Monday - Friday:
8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.


Profile Photo

William Baldwin

Biological Sciences


Graduate Program Coordinator, Biological Sciences

Jordan Hall 318 [Lab]
Long Hall 235 [Office]

Educational Background

PhD, Toxicology, North Carolina State University
BS, Biology, Central Michigan University

Profile/About Me

Dr. Baldwin is a Toxicologist primarily interested in the (1) acclimation of individuals to toxicant stress and (2) the effects of environmental toxicants on lipid metabolism and utilization. Interestingly, energy homeostasis is tightly regulated with individual responses to chemical stress and in turn this energy rich process can cause wasting disease in some instances, while in others may increase obesity and metabolic disease.s. Activation of specific toxicant receptors such as CAR or PXR, specific regulators of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and other detoxification enzymes perturb energy homeostasis. In addition, competition between endobiotic and xenobiotics for proper CYP-mediated metabolism may alter normal dietary and hormonal signaling.

Dr. Baldwin is currently focused on the toxicity of the emerging contaminant, PFOS, and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter oxylipin formation or work through CYP2B6 and in turn alter energy metabolism and cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

In addition, we are interested in the role of the transcription factor and nuclear receptor, HR96 in regulating toxicant metabolism as well as sphingomyelin and ceramides in Daphnia magna and in turn how specific chemicals perturb ovarian maturation through blocking these pathways. We use a variety of techniques including lifecycle testing, transactivation assays, transgenic technologies, bioinformatics, and transcriptomics to study how organisms adapt to toxicants.

Dr. Baldwin has more than 60 publications of which more than 30 have been published since 2009. He also serves as a reviewer for NIH and NSF study sections, worked with the Environmental Directorate of the OECD on the testing and assessment of EDCs, NERC for the use of genomics in toxicity assessments and risk assessment, and a government advisory panel on electromagnetic fields. He has also been involved and planned minority educational events as part of the Society of Toxicology and Endocrine Society. Dr. Baldwin is currently the Graduate Program Coordinator for Biological Sciences at Clemson University.

Research Group (Lab)

Jazmine Eccles - graduate student studying the role of specific oxylipins in altering energy metabolism through changes in PPAR signaling in multiple tissues

Drew Evans - graduate student studying the role of PFOS in perturbing energy metabolism

Tyler Davis - graduate student studying the differences in PFOS bioconcentration in mummichog between salt- and freshwater

Lanie Williams - undergraduate and UPIC fellow studying the mechanisms the regulate PFOS bioaccumulation in liver, serum, and kidney

Bricen Ghent - undergraduate studying the toxicity of PFOS in fish gill

Courses Taught

BIOL 1030: General Biology
ENTOX/BIOSC 8300: Mechanistic Toxicology
BIOL 4800/6800: Endocrinology

Selected Publications

Select Publications from the Past 5 Years:
Google Scholar:
H-index: 32
i10 index: 55

*Graduate Student Co-Authors
**Undergraduate Student Co-Authors

*Heintz, MM, *Kumar, R, Maner-Smith, KM, Ortlund, EA, Baldwin, WS (2022). Age and diet-dependent changes in hepatic lipidomic profiles of male mice: Age acceleration in Cyp2b-null mice. J Lipids, 2022: Article ID 7122738. IF = 1.93.
**Olack, EM, *Heintz, MM, Baldwin, WS. (2022) Dataset of endo- and xenobiotic inhibition of CYP2B6: Comparison to CYP3A4. Data Brief, 41: 108013.

*Hamilton, MC, *Heintz, MM, *Pfohl, M, *Marques, E, *Ford, L, Slitt, AL, Baldwin, WS. (2021) Increased toxicity and retention of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in humanized CYP2B6-Transgenic mice compared to Cyp2b-null mice is relieved by a High-Fat Diet (HFD). Food Chem Toxicol, 152, 112175.

Baldwin, WS, Bain, LJ, DiGuilio, R, Kullman, S, Rice, CD Ringwood, AH, van den Hurk, P. (2020) 20th Pollutant responses in marine organisms (PRIMO 20): Global issues and fundamental mechanisms caused by pollutant stress in marine and freshwater organisms. (Review) Aquat Toxicol, 105620.

*Heintz, MM, *Kumar, R, **McRee, R, Baldwin, WS (2020) Gender differences in diet-induced steatotic disease in Cyp2b-null mice. PLoS ONE, 15(3): e0229896

Baldwin, WS. (2019) Phase 0 of the xenobiotic response: Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors as a first step in protection from xenobiotics. Nucl Recept Res, 6: Article ID 101447, 17 pages.

*1Heintz, MM, *1Kumar, R, **Rutledge, MM, Baldwin, WS. (2019) Cyp2b-null male mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and perturbations in lipid homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem, 70: 125-137.

Rooney, J, Oshida, K, *Kumar, R, Baldwin, W, Corton, JC. (2019) Chemical activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) leads to activation of oxidant-induced Nrf2. Toxicol Sci, 167: 172-189.

*Kumar, R, **Litoff, EJ, **Boswell, WT, Baldwin, WS. (2018) High fat diet induced obesity is mitigated in Cyp3a-null female mice. Chem-Biol Interac, 289: 129-140.

*Schmidt AM, *Sengupta N, Noorai, RE, Saski CA, Baldwin WS. (2017) RNA sequencing indicates that atrazine induces multiple detoxification genes in Daphnia magna and this is a potential source of its mixtures interactions with other chemicals. Chemosphere, 189: 699-708.

*Sengupta, N., **Reardon, D.C., Gerard, P.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2017) Exchange of polar lipids from adults to neonates in Daphnia magna: Perturbations in sphingomyelin allocation by dietary lipids and environmental toxicants. PLOS ONE, 12(5): e0178131.

*Kumar, R., *Mota, L.C., **Litoff, E.J., Rooney, J.P., **Boswell, W.T., **Courter, E., **Henderson, C.M., Hernandez, J.P., Corton, J.C., Moore, D.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2017) Compensatory changes in CYP expression in three different toxicology mouse models: CAR-null, Cyp3a-null, and Cyp2b9/10/13-null mice. PLOS ONE, 12(3): e0174355.

Contact Information

P: 864-656-2328

Campus Location

132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634


Monday - Friday:
8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.