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Biological Sciences Profiles

William Baldwin

Professor and Graduate Program Coordinator of Biological Sciences
Biological Sciences Department

Office: 235 Long Hall
Phone: 864-656-9957
Fax: 864-656-0435


 Educational Background

Phd Toxicology
North Carolina State University 1995

BS Biology
Central Michigan University 1989

 Courses Taught

BIOL 1030: General Biology
ENTOX/BIOSC 8300: Mechanistic Toxicology
BIOL 4800/6800: Endocrinology
BIOL 8440: Understanding Human Biosystems


Dr. Baldwin is a Toxicologist primarily interested in the effects of environmental toxicants on lipid metabolism and utilization, which ultimately may cause obesity, metabolic disease, or lack of reproductive fitness. He has more than 60 publications of which more than 30 have been published since 2009. He also serves as a reviewer for NIH and NSF study sections, worked with the Environmental Directorate of the OECD on the testing and assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and a government advisory panel on electromagnetic fields. Dr. Baldwin's service interests include youth sports and environmental education and is currently the Chair of Athletic Council at Clemson University. He has served on minority student panels for the Society of Toxicology and the Endocrine Society. Dr. Baldwin is currently a member the Society of Toxicology.

 Research Interests

My research focuses on an organism’s ability to acclimate to environmental stressors such as foreign chemicals and toxic endobiotics. Nuclear receptors such as CAR and PXR in mammals and HR96 in invertebrates are important in inducing protective enzymes, including the cytochrome P450s (CYP) that are of special interest. Currently, we are investigating the roles of receptors and CYPs in the regulation of lipid metabolism and its role in obesity and liver disease. In addition, we are interested in the role of the transcription factor and nuclear receptor, HR96 in regulating sphingomyelin and ceramides in Daphnia magna and in turn how specific chemicals perturb ovarian maturation through blocking these pathways. We use a variety of techniques including lifecycle testing, transactivation assays, transgenic technologies, bioinformatics, and transcriptomics to study how organisms adapt to toxicants.


Select Publications: Asterisk indicates a graduate student, two asterisks indicate research conducted by an undergraduate student.

*1Heintz, MM, *1Kumar, R, **Rutledge, MM, Baldwin, WS. Cyp2b-null male mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and perturbations in lipid homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem, in press. Doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.05.004

Rooney, J, Oshida, K, *Kumar, R, Baldwin, W, Corton, JC. Chemical activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) leads to activation of oxidant-induced Nrf2. Toxicol Sci, 167: 172-189. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy231

*Damiri, B, Baldwin, WS. (2018) Cyp2b-knockdown mice poorly metabolize corn oil and are age-dependent obese. Lipids. 53: 871-884.

*Kumar, R, **Litoff, EJ, **Boswell, WT, Baldwin, WS. (2018) High fat diet induced obesity is mitigated in Cyp3a-null female mice. Chem-Biol Interac, 289: 129-140.

*Schmidt AM, *Sengupta N, Noorai, RE, Saski CA, Baldwin WS. (2017) RNA sequencing indicates that atrazine induces multiple detoxification genes in Daphnia magna and this is a potential source of its mixtures interactions with other chemicals. Chemosphere, 189: 699-708.

Baldwin, W.S., *Ginjupalli, G., **Litoff, E.J., **Boswell, W.T. (2017) Annotation of the nuclear receptors in an estuarine fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus. Nucl Recept Res, 4: 101285.

*Sengupta, N., **Reardon, D.C., Gerard, P.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2017) Exchange of polar lipids from adults to neonates in Daphnia magna: Perturbations in sphingomyelin allocation by dietary lipids and environmental toxicants. PLOS ONE, 12(5): e0178131.

*Kumar, R., *Mota, L.C., **Litoff, E.J., Rooney, J.P., **Boswell, W.T., **Courter, E., **Henderson, C.M., Hernandez, J.P., Corton, J.C., Moore, D.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2017) Compensatory changes in CYP expression in three different toxicology mouse models: CAR-null, Cyp3a-null, and Cyp2b9/10/13-null mice. PLOS ONE, 12(3): e0174355.

*Sengupta, N., Gerard, P.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2016) Perturbations in polar lipids, starvation survival and reproduction following exposure to unsaturated fatty acids or environmental toxicants in Daphnia magna. Chemosphere, 144, 2302-2311.

**Litoff, E.J., **Garriott, T.E., *Ginjupalli, G.K., **Butler, L, **Gay, C., **Scott, K., Baldwin, W.S. (2014) Annotation of the Daphnia magna nuclear receptors: Comparison to the distantly related cladocern, Daphnia pulex. Gene, 552, 116-125.

*Li, Y, *Gingupalli, GK, Baldwin, WS. (2014) The HR97 (NR1L) group of nuclear receptors: A new group of nuclear receptors discovered in Daphnia species. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 206: 30-42. NIHMS618828.

*Ginjupalli, G.K., Baldwin, W.S. (2013) The Time- and Age-Dependent Effects of the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pesticide, Pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna Reproduction. Chemosphere, 92: 1260-1266. PMID: 23714148, PMCID: PMC3716864, NIHMS477267

*Karimullina, E., *Li, Y., *Ginjupalli, G.K., Baldwin, W.S. (2012) Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor. Aquat Toxicol., 116-117, 69-78.
PMCID 22466357; NIHMS364797.


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