William Baldwin

Biological Sciences Department

Office: 235 Long Hall
Fax: 864-656-0435

Email: baldwin@clemson.edu
Personal Website: https://www.facebook.com/clemsontox?ref=hl

 Educational Background

Phd Toxicology
North Carolina State University 1995

BS Biology
Central Michigan University 1989

 Courses Taught

BIOL 1030: General Biology
ENTOX/BIOSC 8300: Mechanistic Toxicology
BIOL 4800/6800: Endocrinology
BIOL 8440: Understanding Human Biosystems


Dr. Baldwin is a Toxicologist primarily interested in the effects of environmental toxicants on the the distribution and metabolism of lipids and how this perturbs the utilization of lipids and causes obesity. He has published more than 50 articles of which more than 20 have been published since 2008. He also serves as a reviewer for NIH and NSF study sections, worked with the Environmental Directorate of the OECD on the testing and assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and a government advisory panel on electromagnetic fields. Dr. Baldwin's service interests include youth sports, environmental justice issues, and the education of underserved groups including transfer students. In turn he has served on minority student panels for the Society of Toxicology and the Endocrine Society. Dr. Baldwin is currently a member of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Society of Toxicology.

 Research Interests

My research focuses on an organism’s ability to adapt to environmental stressors such as foreign chemicals and toxic endobiotics. Nuclear receptors such as CAR and PXR in mammals and HR96 in invertebrates are important in inducing protective enzymes and helping organisms acclimate to environmental stressors. The cytochrome P450s (CYP) are one of the key enzymes induced by xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors, and an enzyme family of special interest in our research. We use a variety of techniques including lifecycle testing, transactivation assays, transgenic technologies, bioinformatics, and transcriptomics to study how organisms adapt to toxicants.

We study the interplay between toxicant exposure and high-fat diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. We are especially interested in chemicals that modulate CYP activity. We often use newly constructed knockout and humanized mouse models to perform this work.
We study how the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna adapts to environmental stressors. Our current project investigates the role of the recently annotated orphan nuclear receptors from Daphnia that recognize a variety of toxicants and help Daphnia acclimate to toxicant stress.
We study the role of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR, and their regulation of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes they induce in order to help an organism respond to environmental toxicants. In addition, we are evaluating the role of the Cyp2b subfamily, a key enzyme group induced by CAR, in metabolizing chemicals to less or more toxic intermediates. We use newly constructed transgenic models to perform this work.


Select Publications: Asterisk indicates a graduate student, two asterisks indicate research conducted by an undergraduate student.

*Sengupta, N., Gerard, P.D., Baldwin, W.S. (2016) Perturbations in polar lipids, starvation survival and reproduction following exposure to unsaturated fatty acids or environmental toxicants in Daphnia magna. Chemosphere, 144, 2302-2311.

*Sengupta, N., **Litoff, E.J., Baldwin, W.S. (2015) The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA. Chemosphere, 128, 299-306.

*Ginjupalli, G.K., Gerard, P.D., Baldwin, W.S., (2015) Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem, 34, 527-535.

**Litoff, E.J., **Garriott, T.E., *Ginjupalli, G.K., **Butler, L, **Gay, C., **Scott, K., Baldwin, W.S. (2014) Annotation of the Daphnia magna nuclear receptors: Comparison to the distantly related cladocern, Daphnia pulex. Gene, 552, 116-125.
*Li, Y, *Gingupalli, GK, Baldwin, WS. (2014) The HR97 (NR1L) group of nuclear receptors: A new group of nuclear receptors discovered in Daphnia species. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 206: 30-42.

*Karimullina, E., *Li, Y., *Ginjupalli, G.K., Baldwin, W.S. (2012) Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor. Aquat Toxicol., 116-117, 69-78.

*Damiri, B., Holle, E, Yu, X, Baldwin, WS. (2012) Lentiviral-mediated RNAi knockdown yields a novel mouse model for studying Cyp2b function. Toxicol Sci., 125:368-381.

*Mota, L.C., *Hernandez, J.P., Baldwin, W.S. (2010) Constitutive androstane receptor-null mice are sensitive to the toxic effects of parathion: Association with reduced CYP-mediated parathion metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 38: 1582-1588.

Van Aggelen, G, Ankley, G.T., Baldwin, W.S., Bearden, D.W., Benson, W.H., Chipman, K., Collette, T.W., Craft, J.A., Denslow, N.D., Embry, M.R., Falciani, F., George, S.G., Helbing, C.C., Hoekstra, P.F., Iguchi, T., Kagami, Y., Katsiadaki, I., Kille, P., Liu, L., Lord, P.G., McIntyre, T., O’Neill, A., Osachoff, H., Perkins, E.J., Santos, E.M., Skirrow, R.C., Snape, J.R., Tyler, C.R., Versteeg, D., Viant, M.R., Volz, D.C., Williams, T.D., Yu, L. (2010) Integrating omic technologies into aquatic ecological risk assessment and environmental monitoring: Hurdles, achievements and future outlook. Environ Health Perspect. 118: 1-5.

Baldwin, W.S., Marko, P.B., Nelson, D.R. (2009) The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily in Daphnia pulex. BMC Genomics. 10:169.

Baldwin, W.S. and *Roling, J.A. (2009) A concentration addition model for the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor by xenobiotic mixtures. Toxicol Sci. 107: 93-105.

LeBlanc, G.A., Norris, D.O., Kloas, W., Kullman, S.W., Baldwin, W.S., Greally, J.M. Detailed Review Paper on the State of the Science on Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Screening and Testing Methods and Endpoints for Evaluating Endocrine Disruptors. Series on Testing & Assessment No. 178. JT03325419. Environmental Directorate: Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and The Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides, and Biotechnology. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Unclassified Document: ENV/JM/MONO(2012)23. pages, 213. Released August 21, 2012. http://www.oecd.org/env/chemicalsafetyandbiosafety/testingofchemicals/seriesontestingandassessmentpublicationsbynumber.htm (#178) or http://search.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2012)23&doclanguage=en