SE Asia Regional IPM

The IPM CRSP (Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program) is a USAID-supported research, education/training, and information exchange collaborative partnership among US and developing country institutions, in our case between Clemson University in South Carolina and Cambodia, Indonesia and Philippines. It focuses on participatory and collaborative IPM research and education programs for horticultural export crops and other food production systems. Specific objectives include:

  • make small-scale farmers more knowledgeable in vegetable and high value crop production
  • improve communication and get farmers to adopt IPM practices
  • enhance ability of host country instructions to support IPM-related research and extension activities
  • enhance ability of small-scale farmers to produce and market high quality products

The Clemson University-led consortium develops and implements IPM programs for vegetable and other selected high-value cropping systems in SE Asia.  These systems are commonly characterized by intense chemical pesticide use as farmers endeavor to protect their crops from insects, plant diseases, weeds, and other pests (Shepard et al. 2001).  The project casts a wide net by focusing on selected sites in Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines in locations where crop production is central to the livelihood of large segments of the population.  Scientists from local, national, and international institutions collaborate with farmers to identify problems and seek solutions that result in improvements to the production systems by reducing reliance on harmful chemicals while enhancing the quality of farm products.  The integration of farmers, scientists, and extension personnel is a unifying theme of the project across the selected sites in both countries. 

            Specific pest problems differ from crop to crop (Shepard et al. 1999).  In general, however, the problems encountered in Southeast Asia are the result of excessive indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests.  Historically, each country has undertaken successful efforts to provide IPM training to farmers, but these efforts were largely focused on rice.  Vegetables and other crops have much more complex pest problems than rice, and synthetic pesticide use by vegetable farmers is much more intense than for rice (Hammig et al. 2008). 

            Chemical pesticides are becoming more expensive (especially new chemistries) and add significantly to production costs.  Pest resistance and elimination of natural enemies are common problems.  In addition, inadequate attention to proper application and disposal techniques lead to direct health impacts on farmers and farm laborers.  Contaminated water supplies endanger rural communities and downstream ecosystems.  Rural social structure is affected by health problems, and the effect of agricultural chemical use on women’s roles in farming and farm communities are a significant concern.  Pesticide residues present health problems for consumers and restrict marketing options, especially for potentially lucrative international trade markets.  These problems are well understood and the benefits of effective IPM systems to change this pattern of behavior are well documented (Shepard et al. 2009).

Literature cited:

Shepard, B. M., M. D. Hammig, G. R. Carner, P. A. C. Ooi, J. P. Smith, R. Dilts and A. Rauf. 2009.  Implementing Integrated Pest Management in Developing and Developed Countries. Pp. 279-305.   In: P. Peshin and A. K. Dhawan (Eds.).  Integrated Pest Management Dissemination and Impact.  Vol. 2. Springer.

Hammig, M.D., B. M. Shepard, G. R. Carner, R. Dilts and A. Rauf. 2008.  Areawide Pest Management in Non-rice Food Crops in Southeast Asia.  Pp. 326-350.   In:  O. Koul, G. Cuperus and N. Elliott (Eds).  Areawide Pest Management:  Theory and Implementation. CAB International.

Shepard, B. M., G. S. Arida, H. D. Justo, Jr., and P. A. C. Ooi. 2008. Biological control of the rice black bug.  Pp. 317-327.  In: R. C. Joshi, A. T. Barrion and L. S. Sebastian (Eds).  Rice Black Bugs:  Taxonomy, Ecology and Management of Invasive Species.  PhilRice.

Shepard, B. M.,  E. F. Shepard, G. R. Carner, M. D. Hammig, A. Rauf and S. G. Turnipseed.  2001. Integrated pest management reduces pesticides and production costs of vegetables and soybean in Indonesia: Field studies with local farmers.  Journal of Agromedicine.  Vol. 7 (3): 31- 66.

Shepard, B. M. , G. R. Carner, A. T. Barrion, P.A.C.Ooi and H. van den Berg.  1999.  Insects and their natural enemies associated with vegetables and soybean in Southeast Asia.  Quality Printing,  Orangeburg, SC. 108 pp.