Robert Baldwin

Professor, Conservation Biology/GIS
Margaret H. Lloyd-SmartState Endowed Chair and Director, SmartState Center for Urban Ecology and Restoration
Forestry and Environmental Conservation Department

Office: 221 Lehotsky
Phone: 864-656-1776


 Educational Background

Ph.D. Ecology and Environmental Sciences
University of Maine

M.S. Biology
George Mason University

B.A. Biology
Colby College

 Courses Taught

GIS for Natural Resources FOR/ENR 4340/6340
Landscape Ecology and Conservation WFB 8610


I am a conservation biologist and am currently engaged with systematic conservation planning, which is a spatial approach to allocate conservation resources to the most valuable parts of the landscape in the context of environmental and socio-economic change. While I currently focus on the Southeastern United States, and in particular the Congaree-Wateree region, much of my past work as been in the Appalachians from the Southern US into Canada. I have been lucky to have outstanding students, and other colleagues from academia, conservation organizations, and private industry. Fortunate also we have been to be supported by many federal and state agencies, including the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, EPA, Tennessee Valley Authority, and The National Science Foundation, among many others.

 Research Interests

Figuring out where the key places on Planet Earth are to protect so that there is biodiversity for future generations to enjoy, and prosper from

 Extension and Outreach

It is incumbent upon any scientist, especially those supported by public funds, to interact often with the general population and share knowledge and insight. In my lab I make it a priority to attend as many meetings with the public as I am able, and provide for my students to do the same. Also, with the SmartState Endowment, we try to meet stakeholder needs for research on the intersection of ecology, economy, and conservation. Palmetto Green, Hardscramble Preserve, NatureScape and other web products, as well as in person science communications projects throughout the region show our dedication.


Baldwin, Robert. “Systematic Conservation Planning.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology. Ed. David Gibson. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming

Baldwin, RF, SC Trombulak, PB Leonard, RF Noss, JA Hilty, HP Possingham, L Scarlett, MG Anderson. 2018. The future of landscape conservation. BioScience 68: 60-63.

Pitt, A.L., J.H. Howard*, R.F. Baldwin, E.D. Baldwin, B.L. Brown. 2018. Small parks as local social-ecological systems contributing to conservation of small isolated and ephemeral wetlands. Natural Areas Journal 38: 500-5-12.

K. Beazley and R. Baldwin. 2018. Eds. Biodiversity and Protected Areas. Special Issue, Land.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, R. Daniel Hanks. 2017. Landscape-scale conservation design across biotic realms: sequential integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes. Nature Scientific Reports: DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-15304-w

Pitt, A.L., J.J. Tavano, R.F. Baldwin, B.S. Stegenga*. 2017. Movement ecology and habitat use of three sympatric anuran species. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12:212-224.

Chambers, S. N.*, R. F. Baldwin, E. D. Baldwin, W. C. Bridges, and N. Fouch*. 2017. Social and spatial relationships driving landowner attitudes towards aquatic conservation in a Piedmont-Blue Ridge landscape. Heliyon 3:e00288.

Leonard, P.B.*, E.Duffy, R.F. Baldwin, B. McRae, V. Shah, T. Mohapatra. 2016. GFlow: software for modelling circuit theory-based connectivity at any scale. Methods in Ecology and Evolution DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12689\

Leonard, P.B. *, R. Sutherland, R.F. Baldwin, D. Fedak, A. Montgomery, R. Carnes. 2016. Landscape connectivity losses due to sea level rise and land use change. Animal Conservation DOI: 10.1111/acv.12289

O’Bryan, C.J.*, J.A. Homyack, R.F. Baldwin, Y. Kanno†, A-L. Harrison†. 2016. Novel habitat use supports population maintenance in a reconfigured landscape. Ecosphere 7:e01228

Perkl, R.M.†, R.F. Baldwin, S.C. Trombulak, G.R. Smith. 2016. Landscape network congruency at the ecoregion scale: can we expect corridor 'umbrellas'? Journal of Land Use Science. DOI: 10.1080/1747423X.2016.1142015

Johnson, B.*, K. Barrett†, J. Homyack, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Anuran occupancy and breeding site use of aquatic systems in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 368:45-54

Homyack, J.A., C.J. O’Bryan*, J.E. Thornton, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Community occupancy of herpetofauna in roadside ditches in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 361:346-357.

Johnson, B.A., J.A. Homyack, K. Barrett, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Factors influencing herpetofaunal assemblages of aquatic systems in a managed pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 379:124-132.

Chow, A.T., A.L. Pitt, R.F. Baldwin, D. Suhre, J-J. Wang. 2016. Water quality dynamics of ephemeral wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA. Ecological Engineering 94:555-563.

R.F. Baldwin and P.B Leonard*. 2015. Interacting social and environmental predictors for the spatial distribution of conservation lands. PloS ONE 10(10):e0140540.

Yu, X., Hawley-Howard, J.*, Wang, J-J., Pitt, A-L., Baldwin, R.F., Chow, A.T. 2015. Water quality of small seasonal wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA: effects of land use and hydrological connectivity. Water Research 73 98-108

Stambaugh, M.C., J.M. Varner, R.F. Noss, D.C. Dey, N.L. Christensen, R.F. Baldwin, R.P. Guyette, B.B. Hanberry, C.A. Harper, S.G. Lindblom, and T.A. Waldrop. 2015. Clarifying the role of fire in the deciduous forests of eastern North America: reply to Matlack. Conservation Biology DOI . 10.1111/cobi.12473

Surasinghe, T.D.* and R.F. Baldwin. 2015. Importance of riparian forest buffers in conservation of stream biodiversity: responses to land-uses by stream-associated salamanders across two Southeastern temperate ecoregions. Journal of Herpetology. 49: 83-94

Groff, L.*, A.L. Pitt, R.F. Baldwin, A.J.K. Calhoun, C. Loftin. 2015. Evaluation of a waistband for attaching external radio transmitters to anurans. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 39:610-615

Surasinghe, T.D.* and R.F. Baldwin. 2014. Ghost of land use past in the context of current land cover: Evidence from salamander communities in streams of Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92: 527-536.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, E. B. Duffy, D.J. Lipscomb, A.M. Rose*. 2014. High-throughput computing provides substantial time savings for landscape and conservation planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 125:156-165

Homyack, J.A., C.J. O’Bryan*, J.E. Thornton, and R.F. Baldwin. 2014. Anuran assemblages associated with roadside ditches in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 334:217-231.

Baldwin, R., R. Scherzinger, D. Lipscomb, M. Mockrin, S. Stein 2014. Planning for land use and conservation: assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning. Research Note RMRS-RN-70. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 33p.

Pitt, A.L.*, R.F. Baldwin, J.J. Tavano, T.A. Waldrop, and R.J. Phillips. 2014. Synthesis of the effects of fire on Southern Appalachian Fauna. Pages 86-95 In Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SRS-199.

Pitt, A.L.*, J.J. Tavano, R.F. Baldwin, and T.A. Waldrop. 2013. Effects of fuel reduction treatments on movement and habitat use of American toads in a southern Appalachian hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 310:289-299.

Hackney, A.D.*, R.F. Baldwin, P.G.R. Jodice. 2013. Mapping risk for nest predation on a barrier island. Journal of Coastal Conservation. 17:615-621

Giles, M.M.*, P.G.R. Jodice, R.F. Baldwin, J.D. Stanton, M. Epstein. 2013. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina. Canadian Field Naturalist. 127:17-25.

Baldwin, R.F., S.E. Reed, B.H. McRae, D.M. Theobald, R.W. Sutherland. 2012. Connectivity restoration in large landscapes: Modeling landscape condition and ecological flows. Ecological Restoration 30: 274-279.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, J.A. Homyack, T.B. Wigley. 2012. Remote detection of small wetlands in the Atlantic coastal plain of North America: local relief models, ground validation, and high-throughput computing. Forest Ecology and Management 284: 107-115.

Howard, J.H*. R.F. Baldwin, B.B. Brown. 2012. Exploratory analysis for complex-life-cycle amphibians: revealing complex forest-reproductive effort relationships using redundancy analysis. Forest Ecology and Management. 270: 175-182

Trombulak, S.C., R.F. Baldwin, J.J. Lawler, J. Cymerman-Hepinstall, and M.A. Anderson. 2012. The Northern Appalachian/Acadian Ecoregion, North America. Pages 227-239 in: J.A. Hilty, C.C. Chester, and M.S. Cross, eds. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Island Press.

Noss, R.F., A. Dobson, R. Baldwin, P. Beier, C. Davis, D. DellaSala, J. Francis, H. Locke, K. Nowak, R.R. Lopez, C. Reining, S. Trombulak, G. Tabor. 2012. Bolder thinking for conservation. Conservation Biology 26:1-4.

Surasinghe, T.D.*, J.R. Courter*, R.F. Baldwin, R.J. Johnson. 2012. Use of threat analysis to assess the effects of land development on biodiversity in a Blue Ridge-Piedmont landscape. Journal of Conservation Planning. 8:1-11.

Calhoun, A.J.K., M.K. Gahl, and R.F. Baldwin. 2012. Northeastern seasonal woodland pools. Pages 135-148 in: D. Batzer and A. Baldwin, eds. Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns. University of California Press.

Beier, P., W. Spencer, R. Baldwin, B. McCrae. 2011. Toward best practices for developing regional connectivity maps. Conservation Biology 25:879-892.

Pitt, A.*, R. Baldwin, D. Lipscomb, B. Brown, J. Hawley*, C. Allard*, P. Leonard*. 2011. The missing wetlands: using local ecological knowledge to find cryptic ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:51-63.

Baldwin, R.F., R.B. Powell, and S. R. Kellert. 2011. Habitat as architecture: integrating conservation planning with human health. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 40: 322-327

Colbert, N.*, R.F. Baldwin, and R. Thiet. 2011. A Developer-Initiated Conservation Plan for Pool-Breeding Amphibians in Maine, USA: A Case Study. Journal of Conservation Planning 7: 27-38

Pitt, A.L.*, C.M. Allard*, J.E. Hawley*, R.F. Baldwin, and B.L. Brown. 2011. Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt). Necrophilia and cannibalism. Herpetological Review 42: 258.

Pitt, A.L.*, J.E. Hawley*, C.M. Allard*, R.F. Baldwin, and B.L. Brown. 2011. Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt) Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog). Predation. Herpetological Review 42: 263.

Trombulak, S.C. and R. F. Baldwin, editors. 2010. Landscape-scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F. 2010. Identifying keystone threats to biodiversity. Pages 17-32 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F. and S.C. Trombulak. 2010. Introduction: creating a context for landscape-scale conservation planning. Pages 1-15 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F., R.M. Perkl*, S.C. Trombulak, and W.T. Burwell. 2010. Modeling ecoregional connectivity. Pages 349-367 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Trombulak, S.C., R.F. Baldwin and G. Woolmer. 2010. The Human Footprint as a conservation planning tool. Pages 281-301 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Lipscomb, D.J. and R.F. Baldwin. 2010. Geoprocessing solutions developed while calculating Human Footprint™ statistics for zones representing protected areas and adjacent lands at the continent scale. Mathematical and Computational Forestry and Natural Resource Sciences 2:72-78.

Baldwin, R.F. and P.G. deMaynadier. 2009. Assessing threats to pool-breeding amphibian habitat in an urbanizing landscape. Biological Conservation 142: 1628-1638.

Baldwin, R.F., S.C. Trombulak, and E. Dennis Baldwin. 2009. Assessing risk of large-scale habitat conversion in lightly settled landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 91:219-225.

Woolmer, G., S.C. Trombulak, J.C. Ray, P.J. Doran, M.G. Anderson, R.F. Baldwin, A. Morgan, and E.W. Sanderson. 2008. Rescaling the Human Footprint: A tool for conservation planning at an ecoregional scale. Landscape and Urban Planning 87:42-53.