Robert Baldwin

Professor and Endowed Chair, Conservation
The Margaret H. Lloyd-SmartState Endowment at Clemson University
Forestry and Environmental Conservation Department

Office: 119 Lehotsky
Phone: 864-656-1776


 Educational Background

Ph.D. Ecology and Environmental Sciences
University of Maine

M.S. Organismal Biology
George Mason University

A.B. Biology
Colby College

 Courses Taught

GIS for Natural Resources FOR/ENR 4340/6340
Landscape Ecology and Conservation WFB 8610
Ecology Reading Group (BIOL 8070)
Previous: Conservation Biology, Wildlife Conservation Policy


Among the environmental concerns about which people care the most, biodiversity ranks near the bottom. Yet, it is vital to our existence. The research in my lab is focused on the phenomenon of "nature conservation" - where is it happening, why, and where should it happen? We are driven by practical outcomes, such as the benefits to people of having large, interconnected natural areas for personal (recreational), ecological, and economic services (provided by wildlife and landscapes). We work in landscapes with seemingly intractable human-nature conservation problems to try to develop solutions at the micro level. Most conservation is local, and individual and done by small groups working together, aided by the government but not directed by it. So that is the process in which we attempt to embed our science.

Funding has come from the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Tennessee Valley Authority, USDA-AFRI, conservation organizations, private individuals and companies, and The National Science Foundation. We have the Margaret H. Lloyd-SmartState Endowment for urban ecology, restoration, and environmental education and the 752 acre Hardscramble Preserve for programming.

My career background includes zoo biology and animal behavior, experiential education, landscape ecology of wetlands, mammalogy, and herpetology.

 Research Interests

- Landscape Ecology
- Ecosystem Services
- Conservation Biology
- Urbanization of Rural and Forested Regions
- Conservation Education

 Extension and Outreach

At the Hardscramble Preserve located in the Congaree-Wateree Basin near Camden, the team is using the land as a window into natural and cultural history and land management. Hardscramble is a property donated to Clemson by Margaret H. Lloyd and bordering the Wateree River with wetland and upland forests including a Sandhills-type long leaf pine stand experiencing systematic restoration. The programs integrate Clemson students into land management, and teach children about the forest, streams, river, and wetlands.


Brumm, K.J. R. D. Hanks, R. F. Baldwin, B.K. Peoples. 2021. Accounting for multiple dimensions of biodiversity to assess surrogate performance in a freshwater conservation prioritization. Ecological Indicators. Volume 122. 107320,

J.C. Ureta, M. Vassalos, M. Motallebi, R. Baldwin, J. Ureta. 2020. Using stakeholders' preference for ecosystems and ecosystem services as an economic basis underlying strategic conservation planning. Heliyon, Volume 6, Issue 12,e05827,

Tornwall, B.M.; Pitt, A.L.; Brown, B.L.; Hawley-Howard, J.; Baldwin, R.F. Diversity Patterns Associated with Varying Dispersal Capabilities as a Function of Spatial and Local Environmental Variables in Small Wetlands in Forested Ecosystems. Forests 2020, 11, 1146.

Clement, M.A., K. Barrett, R.F. Baldwin, C.M. Bodinof Jachowski, A. Carter, D. Brinker. 2020. An unexpected backyard hunter: breeding Barred Owls exhibit plasticity in habitat selection along a development gradient. Urban Ecosystems

Dertien JS, S. Self, B.E. Ross, K. Barrett, R.F. Baldwin. 2020. The relationship between biodiversity and wetland cover varies across regions of the conterminous United States. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0232052.

Godfrey, S.T., J.H. Waddle, R.F Baldwin, W.H. Conner, W.C. Bridges, J.A. Duberstein. 2020.. Herpetofauna Occupancy and Community Composition along a Tidal Swamp Salinity Gradient. Wetlands.

Hanks, R.D., P.B. Leonard, and R.F. Baldwin. 2020. Understanding landscape influences on aquatic fauna across the Central and Southern Appalachians. Land 9, 19; doi:10.3390/land9010016

Fouch, N., Baldwin, R.F., Gerard, P., Dyckman, C., D.M. Theobald. 2019. Landscape-level naturalness of conservation easements in a mixed-use matrix. Landscape Ecology 34: 1967-1987

Clement, M. A., K. Barrett and R. F. Baldwin. 2019. Key habitat features facilitate the presence of Barred Owls in developed landscapes. Avian Conservation and Ecology 14 (2):12

Baldwin, R.F.; Beazley, K.F. 2019. Emerging Paradigms for Biodiversity and Protected Areas. Land, 8, 43.

Beazley, K.F. and R.F. Baldwin, eds. 2019. Biodiversity and Protected Areas. MDPI Basel, Switzerland 185 pp.

Hanks, R.D., R.F. Baldwin, P.B. Leonard, G.B. Bee, and P. Claflin. 2019. Interactive online tool for educating the public about landscape conservation. Journal of Extension 57: 2TOT5

Ogletree, S.S., R.B. Powell, R.F. Baldwin, P.B. Leonard 2019. A framework for mapping cultural resources in landscape conservation planning. Conservation Science and Practice e41:

Baldwin, R.F. and N.T. Fouch. 2018. Understanding the biodiversity contributions of small protected areas presents many challenges. Land 7: 123; doi:10.3390/land7040123.

Baldwin, Robert. “Systematic Conservation Planning.” 2018. In Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology. Ed. David Gibson. New York: Oxford University Press.

Baldwin, RF, SC Trombulak, PB Leonard, RF Noss, JA Hilty, HP Possingham, L Scarlett, MG Anderson. 2018. The future of landscape conservation. BioScience 68: 60-63.

Pitt, A.L., J.H. Howard*, R.F. Baldwin, E.D. Baldwin, B.L. Brown. 2018. Small parks as local social-ecological systems contributing to conservation of small isolated and ephemeral wetlands. Natural Areas Journal 38: 500-5-12.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, R. Daniel Hanks. 2017. Landscape-scale conservation design across biotic realms: sequential integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes. Nature Scientific Reports: DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-15304-w

Pitt, A.L., J.J. Tavano, R.F. Baldwin, B.S. Stegenga*. 2017. Movement ecology and habitat use of three sympatric anuran species. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12:212-224.

Chambers, S. N.*, R. F. Baldwin, E. D. Baldwin, W. C. Bridges, and N. Fouch*. 2017. Social and spatial relationships driving landowner attitudes towards aquatic conservation in a Piedmont-Blue Ridge landscape. Heliyon 3:e00288.

Leonard, P.B.*, E.Duffy, R.F. Baldwin, B. McRae, V. Shah, T. Mohapatra. 2016. GFlow: software for modelling circuit theory-based connectivity at any scale. Methods in Ecology and Evolution DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12689\

Leonard, P.B. *, R. Sutherland, R.F. Baldwin, D. Fedak, A. Montgomery, R. Carnes. 2016. Landscape connectivity losses due to sea level rise and land use change. Animal Conservation DOI: 10.1111/acv.12289

O’Bryan, C.J.*, J.A. Homyack, R.F. Baldwin, Y. Kanno†, A-L. Harrison†. 2016. Novel habitat use supports population maintenance in a reconfigured landscape. Ecosphere 7:e01228

Perkl, R.M.†, R.F. Baldwin, S.C. Trombulak, G.R. Smith. 2016. Landscape network congruency at the ecoregion scale: can we expect corridor 'umbrellas'? Journal of Land Use Science. DOI: 10.1080/1747423X.2016.1142015

Johnson, B.*, K. Barrett†, J. Homyack, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Anuran occupancy and breeding site use of aquatic systems in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 368:45-54

Homyack, J.A., C.J. O’Bryan*, J.E. Thornton, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Community occupancy of herpetofauna in roadside ditches in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 361:346-357.

Johnson, B.A., J.A. Homyack, K. Barrett, R.F. Baldwin. 2016. Factors influencing herpetofaunal assemblages of aquatic systems in a managed pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 379:124-132.

Chow, A.T., A.L. Pitt, R.F. Baldwin, D. Suhre, J-J. Wang. 2016. Water quality dynamics of ephemeral wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA. Ecological Engineering 94:555-563.

R.F. Baldwin and P.B Leonard*. 2015. Interacting social and environmental predictors for the spatial distribution of conservation lands. PloS ONE 10(10):e0140540.

Yu, X., Hawley-Howard, J.*, Wang, J-J., Pitt, A-L., Baldwin, R.F., Chow, A.T. 2015. Water quality of small seasonal wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA: effects of land use and hydrological connectivity. Water Research 73 98-108

Stambaugh, M.C., J.M. Varner, R.F. Noss, D.C. Dey, N.L. Christensen, R.F. Baldwin, R.P. Guyette, B.B. Hanberry, C.A. Harper, S.G. Lindblom, and T.A. Waldrop. 2015. Clarifying the role of fire in the deciduous forests of eastern North America: reply to Matlack. Conservation Biology DOI . 10.1111/cobi.12473

Surasinghe, T.D.* and R.F. Baldwin. 2015. Importance of riparian forest buffers in conservation of stream biodiversity: responses to land-uses by stream-associated salamanders across two Southeastern temperate ecoregions. Journal of Herpetology. 49: 83-94

Groff, L.*, A.L. Pitt, R.F. Baldwin, A.J.K. Calhoun, C. Loftin. 2015. Evaluation of a waistband for attaching external radio transmitters to anurans. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 39:610-615

Surasinghe, T.D.* and R.F. Baldwin. 2014. Ghost of land use past in the context of current land cover: Evidence from salamander communities in streams of Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92: 527-536.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, E. B. Duffy, D.J. Lipscomb, A.M. Rose*. 2014. High-throughput computing provides substantial time savings for landscape and conservation planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 125:156-165

Homyack, J.A., C.J. O’Bryan*, J.E. Thornton, and R.F. Baldwin. 2014. Anuran assemblages associated with roadside ditches in a managed pine landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 334:217-231.

Baldwin, R., R. Scherzinger, D. Lipscomb, M. Mockrin, S. Stein 2014. Planning for land use and conservation: assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning. Research Note RMRS-RN-70. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 33p.

Pitt, A.L.*, R.F. Baldwin, J.J. Tavano, T.A. Waldrop, and R.J. Phillips. 2014. Synthesis of the effects of fire on Southern Appalachian Fauna. Pages 86-95 In Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SRS-199.

Pitt, A.L.*, J.J. Tavano, R.F. Baldwin, and T.A. Waldrop. 2013. Effects of fuel reduction treatments on movement and habitat use of American toads in a southern Appalachian hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 310:289-299.

Hackney, A.D.*, R.F. Baldwin, P.G.R. Jodice. 2013. Mapping risk for nest predation on a barrier island. Journal of Coastal Conservation. 17:615-621

Giles, M.M.*, P.G.R. Jodice, R.F. Baldwin, J.D. Stanton, M. Epstein. 2013. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina. Canadian Field Naturalist. 127:17-25.

Baldwin, R.F., S.E. Reed, B.H. McRae, D.M. Theobald, R.W. Sutherland. 2012. Connectivity restoration in large landscapes: Modeling landscape condition and ecological flows. Ecological Restoration 30: 274-279.

Leonard, P.B.*, R.F. Baldwin, J.A. Homyack, T.B. Wigley. 2012. Remote detection of small wetlands in the Atlantic coastal plain of North America: local relief models, ground validation, and high-throughput computing. Forest Ecology and Management 284: 107-115.

Howard, J.H*. R.F. Baldwin, B.B. Brown. 2012. Exploratory analysis for complex-life-cycle amphibians: revealing complex forest-reproductive effort relationships using redundancy analysis. Forest Ecology and Management. 270: 175-182

Trombulak, S.C., R.F. Baldwin, J.J. Lawler, J. Cymerman-Hepinstall, and M.A. Anderson. 2012. The Northern Appalachian/Acadian Ecoregion, North America. Pages 227-239 in: J.A. Hilty, C.C. Chester, and M.S. Cross, eds. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Island Press.

Noss, R.F., A. Dobson, R. Baldwin, P. Beier, C. Davis, D. DellaSala, J. Francis, H. Locke, K. Nowak, R.R. Lopez, C. Reining, S. Trombulak, G. Tabor. 2012. Bolder thinking for conservation. Conservation Biology 26:1-4.

Surasinghe, T.D.*, J.R. Courter*, R.F. Baldwin, R.J. Johnson. 2012. Use of threat analysis to assess the effects of land development on biodiversity in a Blue Ridge-Piedmont landscape. Journal of Conservation Planning. 8:1-11.

Calhoun, A.J.K., M.K. Gahl, and R.F. Baldwin. 2012. Northeastern seasonal woodland pools. Pages 135-148 in: D. Batzer and A. Baldwin, eds. Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns. University of California Press.

Beier, P., W. Spencer, R. Baldwin, B. McCrae. 2011. Toward best practices for developing regional connectivity maps. Conservation Biology 25:879-892.

Pitt, A.*, R. Baldwin, D. Lipscomb, B. Brown, J. Hawley*, C. Allard*, P. Leonard*. 2011. The missing wetlands: using local ecological knowledge to find cryptic ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:51-63.

Baldwin, R.F., R.B. Powell, and S. R. Kellert. 2011. Habitat as architecture: integrating conservation planning with human health. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 40: 322-327

Colbert, N.*, R.F. Baldwin, and R. Thiet. 2011. A Developer-Initiated Conservation Plan for Pool-Breeding Amphibians in Maine, USA: A Case Study. Journal of Conservation Planning 7: 27-38

Pitt, A.L.*, C.M. Allard*, J.E. Hawley*, R.F. Baldwin, and B.L. Brown. 2011. Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt). Necrophilia and cannibalism. Herpetological Review 42: 258.

Pitt, A.L.*, J.E. Hawley*, C.M. Allard*, R.F. Baldwin, and B.L. Brown. 2011. Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt) Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog). Predation. Herpetological Review 42: 263.

Trombulak, S.C. and R. F. Baldwin, editors. 2010. Landscape-scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F. 2010. Identifying keystone threats to biodiversity. Pages 17-32 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F. and S.C. Trombulak. 2010. Introduction: creating a context for landscape-scale conservation planning. Pages 1-15 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Baldwin, R.F., R.M. Perkl*, S.C. Trombulak, and W.T. Burwell. 2010. Modeling ecoregional connectivity. Pages 349-367 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Trombulak, S.C., R.F. Baldwin and G. Woolmer. 2010. The Human Footprint as a conservation planning tool. Pages 281-301 in: S.C. Trombulak and R.F. Baldwin, eds. Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Lipscomb, D.J. and R.F. Baldwin. 2010. Geoprocessing solutions developed while calculating Human Footprintâ„¢ statistics for zones representing protected areas and adjacent lands at the continent scale. Mathematical and Computational Forestry and Natural Resource Sciences 2:72-78.

Baldwin, R.F. and P.G. deMaynadier. 2009. Assessing threats to pool-breeding amphibian habitat in an urbanizing landscape. Biological Conservation 142: 1628-1638.

Baldwin, R.F., S.C. Trombulak, and E. Dennis Baldwin. 2009. Assessing risk of large-scale habitat conversion in lightly settled landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 91:219-225.

Woolmer, G., S.C. Trombulak, J.C. Ray, P.J. Doran, M.G. Anderson, R.F. Baldwin, A. Morgan, and E.W. Sanderson. 2008. Rescaling the Human Footprint: A tool for conservation planning at an ecoregional scale. Landscape and Urban Planning 87:42-53.