Nathan Long

Associate Professor
Animal and Veterinary Sciences Department

Office: 137 P&A Building
Fax: 656-3131


 Educational Background

Ph.D. Reproductive Physiology
Oklahoma State University 2008

M.S. Ruminant Nutrition
University of Georgia 2004

B. S. Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Clemson University 2002

 Courses Taught

AVS 2000/2001 Beef technique
AVS 3900 Practicum
AVS 4010/4011 Beef Production
AVS 4090 Undergraduate Research Experience
AVS 6010/6011 Graduate Beef Production
AVS 8010 Graduate Special Problems

 Research Interests

Area of expertise is in the field of fetal programming which is the study of the effects of maternal and environmental factors that cause alteration in fetal growth and development. I then investigate how the changes to the fetus persist into the postnatal animal and leads to physiological effects like diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. To accomplish my research I utilize sheep and cattle as my models. In addition to this research, I am interested in the effects of postnatal nutrition and specific nutrients on growth and marbling of calves.


Long, N. M., G. M. Hill, J. F. Baker, W. M. Graves, D. H. Keisler, and B. G. Mullinix Jr. Case study: reproductive performance of beef cows fed whole soybeans before the breeding interval. 2008. Professional Animal Scientist. Vol 24 P 639 - 647.

Long, N. M., K. A. Vonnahme, B. W. Hess, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Effects of early gestational undernutrition on fetal growth, organ development, and placentomal composition in the bovine. 2009 J. Anim Sci. 87: 1950-1959.

Long, N. M., M. P. Davis, M. J. Prado-Cooper, I. Rubio, and R. P. Wettemann. Estrus and luteal activity of postpartum beef cows after treatment with estradiol. 2009 Professional Animal Scientist. 25:481-486

Long, N. M., A. B. Uthlaut, D. C. Rule, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. The Effects of Maternal Obesity and High Nutrient Intake on Ovine Colostrum Nutrient Composition. 2009 Proceedings, Western Section, Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. Vol. 60:183-186.

Long, N. M., M. J. Nijland, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. The impacts of early to mid-gestational nutrient restriction on female offspring fertility and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress. 2010. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 2029-2037.

George, L. A., A.B. Uthlaut, N. M. Long, L. Zhang, Y. Ma, D. T. Smith, P.W. Nathanielsz, and S.P. Ford. Different levels of overnutrition and weight gain during pregnancy. have differential effects on fetal growth and organ development. 2010. Reprod. Biol. and Endocrinol 8:75.

Long, N. M., M.J. Prado-Cooper, C.R. Krehbiel, U. DeSilva, and R.P. Wettemann. Effects of nutrient restriction of bovine dams during early gestation on postnatal growth, carcass and organ characteristics, and gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle. 2010. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 3251-3261.

Long, N. M., M.J. Prado-Cooper, C.R. Krehbiel, and R.P. Wettemann. Effects of nutrient restriction of bovine dams during early gestation on postnatalgrowth and regulation of plasma glucose. 2010. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 3262-3268.

Long, N. M., L. A. George, A. B. Uthlaut, D. T. Smith, M. J. Nijland , P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Maternal obesity and high nutrient intake before and during gestation in the ewe results in altered growth, adiposity and glucose tolerance in adult offspring. 2010. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 3546-3553.

Zhu, M. J, Y. Ma, N. M. Long, M. Du, and S. P. Ford. Maternal Obesity Markedly Increases Placental Fatty Acid Transporter Expression and Fetal Blood Triglycerides at Mid-gestation in the Ewe.2010. Am. J. Physiol. – Regul., Integr. and Compar. Physiol. 299: R1224-R1231

Zhang, L, N. M. Long, S. M. Hein, Y. Ma, P. W. Nathanielsz, S. P. Ford. Diet-Induced maternal obesity at conception and throughout gestation increases fetal pancreatic ?-cell losses in late gestation, resulting in decreased circulating insulin concentration at term. 2011. Domestic Anim. Endocrinol. 40: 30-39.

N. M. Long, S. P. Ford, and P. W. Nathanielsz. Maternal obesity eliminates the neonatal lamb plasma leptin peak. . J.Physiol. 2011.589:1455-1462.

M.J. Prado-Cooper, N. M. Long, and R.P. Wettemann. Relationship of ruminal temperature with parturition and estrus of beef cows.2011 J. Anim. Sci. 89:1020-1027.

Yan X, Y. Huang, J. Zhao, N. M. Long, A. B. Uthlaut, M. J. Zhu, S. P. Ford, P. W. Nathanielsz, and M. Du. Maternal over-nutrition impaired insulin signaling, and induced lipid accumulation and fibrosis in skeletal muscle of offspring. Biol. Reprod. 2011. 85:172-178.

S. P. Ford and N. M. Long. Evidence of similar changes in offspring phenotype following either maternal undernutrition and overnutrition: potential impact on fetal epigenetic mechanism. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 2012, 24:105-111.

Long, N. M., C. B. Tousley, S. P. Ford, W. J. Means, B. W. Hess, and M. Du. Effects of early to mid gestational undernutrition on offspring growth, carcass characteristics and histology of adipose tissue in the bovine. J. Anim. Sci. 2012, 90:197-206.

Huang, Y., J. Zhao, X. Yan. M. J. Zhu, N. M. Long, R. J. McCormick, S. P. Ford, P. W. Nathanielsz, and M. Du. Maternal obesity enhances collagen accumulation and cross-linking in skeletal muscle of ovine offspring. PLOS One 2012 7:e31691.

Long, N. M., P.W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. The impact of maternal overnutrition and obesity on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response of offspring to stress. Dom. Anim. Endocrin 2012, 42:195-202.

George, L. A., L. Zhang, N. Tuersunjiang, Y. Ma, N. M. Long, A. B. Uthlaut, D. T. Smith, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Impact of maternal nutrient restriction in the sheep on feed intake, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in aged female offspring. Am. J. Physiol. – Regul., Integr. and Compar. Physiol. 2012, 302:R795–R804.

Long, N. M., D. C. Rule, M. J. Zhu, P.W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity and upregulated nutrient transporters in fetal fat depots and muscle in late gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 2012, 90:2201–2210.

Long, N. M., D. R. Shasa, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Growth and insulin dynamics in two generations of female offspring of mothers receiving a single course of synthetic glucocorticoids. Am. J. OB and Gyn. 2012, 207:203.e1-8.

Long, N. M., R. J. Collier, and J. F. Smith. Short communication: Comparison of 2 methods of assessing calf birth weights in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci.2012, 95 :7206–7209.

Long, N. M., P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Transgenerational effects of fetal dexamethasone exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of first and second generation female offspring. Am. J. OB and Gyn. 2013, 208:217.e1-8.

Long, N. M., N. Tuersunjiang, L. A. George, C. O. Lemley, Y. Ma, W. J. Murdoch, P. W. Nathanielsz, S. P. Ford. Maternal nutrient restriction in the ewe from early to midgestation programs reduced steroidogenic enzyme expression and tended to reduce progesterone content of corpora lutea, as well as circulating progesterone in nonpregnant aged female offspring. Biol. Reprod. Endocrinol. 2013. 11:34

Nathanielsz, P. W., S. P. Ford, N. M. Long, C. C. Vega, L. A. Reyes-Castro, and E. Zambrano. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development. Nutr. Rev. 2013 71: S78-S87

Long, N. M. D. T. Smith, S. P. Ford, and P. W. Nathanielsz. Elevated Glucocorticoids during Ovine Pregnancy increase Appetite and produce Glucose Dysregulation and Adiposity in Their Granddaughters in response to ad libitum feeding at one year of age. Am. J. OB and Gyn. 2013 209: e1-353. e9

Tuersunjiang, N, J. F. Odhiambo1, N. M. Long, D. R. Shasa, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Diet reduction to requirements in previously obese/overfed ewes at early gestation prevents glucose-insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels. Am. J. Physiol. –Endocrin. And Metabolism. 2013 305: E868-E878

Long N. M. and D. W. Schafer. Sex effects changes in plasma leptin in newborn and postnatal beef calves. Professional Animal Scientist. 2013 29:601-605

Long, N. M., T. A. Burns, G. Volpi Lagreca, M. Alende, and S. K. Duckett Palmitoleic acid infusion acutely affects glucose and insulin action in obese lambs Journal of Metabolic Syndrome.2014 3: 148

M. J. Cooper-Prado, N. M. Long, M. P. Davis, E. C. Wright, R. D. Madden, J. W. Dilwith, C. L. Bailey, L. J. Spicer, and R. P. Wettemann. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins. J. Anim. Sci 2014, 92:3300-3315

Long N. M., T. A. Burns, S. K. Duckett, and D. W. Schafer. Reproductive performance of underdeveloped beef heifers supplemented with saturated or unsaturated rumen bypass fat compared to an isocaloric control. Professional Animal Scientist. 2014 30:502-509

Duckett, S. K., M. C. Miller, G. Volpi Lagreca, M. Alende, J. G. Andrae, and N. M. Long. Effect of palmitoleic acid infusion on plasma, muscle and adipose tissue fatty acids and lipogenic gene expression in obese sheep. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2014, 7:553–563

Shasa D. R., J. F. Odhiambo, N. M. Long, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Transgenerational Impact of Maternal Overnutrition/Obesity on Offspring Appetite, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance. International Journal of Obesity. 2015, 39: 695-701

Stowe H. M., M. Miller, S. M. Calcatera, M. D. Owens, G. E. Aiken, F. N. Schrick, N. M. Long, S. K. Duckett, J. G Andrae, S. L. Pratt. Bulls Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue Exhibit Impaired Growth, Semen Quality and Decreased Semen Freezing Potential. Therio. 2015, 83:408–414

Long, N. M., D. C. Rule, N. Tuersunjiang, P. W. Nathanielsz, and S. P. Ford. Maternal obesity increases fatty acid synthesis, upregulates nutrient transporters, and increases adiposity in adult male offspring. PLOS 1. 2015, 10(4): e0122152.

Mangrum, K. S., G. Tuttle, S. K. Duckett, G. S. Sell, C. R. Krehbiel, and N. M. Long. The effect of supplementing rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids on marbling in early-weaned steers. J. Anim. Sci., 2016, 94:833–844

Wilson T. B., N. M. Long, D. B. Faulkner, and D. W. Shike. Influence of excessive dietary protein intake during late gestationon drylot beef cow performance and progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 2016.94:2035–2046.

Zinn, S. A., S. L. Ivey, D. L. Lalman, N. M. Long, and R. A. Zinn. Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: Feeding Holstein Steers. J. Anim. Sci. 2016. 94:3135–3136

Hall L. W., F. R. Dunshea, J. D. Allen, S. Rungruang, J.L. Collier, N.M. Long and R.J. Collier. Evaluation of dietary betaine in lactating Holstein cows subjected to heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 2016 99:9745-9753 .

Lemaster, C. L., R. K. Taylor, R. E. Ricks, and N. M. Long. The effects of late gestation maternal nutrient restriction with or without protein supplementation in endocrine regulation of newborn and postnatal beef calves. Therio 2017 87: 64–71

Cook, E. K., M. E. Garcia-Ascolani, R. E. Ricks, S. K. Duckett, G. C. Lamb, N. DiLorenzo, and N. M. Long. The effect of frequency of supplementing rumen protected unsaturated fatty acids on blood serum fatty acid profiles in beef heifers and lactating cows. J. Anim. Sci. 2017 95:2977–2985

Taylor, R. K., C. T. LeMaster, K. S. Mangrum, R. E. Ricks, and N. M. Long. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction during early or mid-gestation without realimentation in the bovine effects on maternal physiology and fetal growth and development. Animal 2018 12, 312-321.

J. E. Tipton, R. E. Ricks, C. T. LeMaster, and N.M. Long. The effects of late gestation nutrient restriction of dams on heifer offspring intake, metabolites and hormones during an ad libitum feeding trial. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl) 2018 102, e877-e884.

López Valiente, S., S. Maresca, A.M. Rodríguez, R.A. Palladino, I.M. Lacau-Mengido, N.M. Long, and G. Quintans. Effect of protein restriction during late gestation on reproductive performance and milk yield in beef cows. Professional Animal Scientist 2018 34:261–268

Marescaa, S., S.O. Lopez Valiente, A. M. Rodriguez, N. M. Long, E. Pavan and G. Quintans. Effect of protein restriction of bovine dams during late gestation on offspring postnatal growth, glucose - insulin metabolism and IGF-1 concentration. Livestock Science 2018 212:120-126.

Hall, L.W., F. Villar, J.D. Chapman, N.M. Long and R.J. Collier. An Evaluation Of Omnigen-AF™ In Heat-Stressed Lactating Holstein Cows: Impacts on Physiological and Production Responses, Milk Quality, Measures of Immune Function and Hormones of the Adrenal Axis. J. Dairy Sci. 2018 101:7095-7105.

Burnett, CR, SL Pratt, NM Long, GS Sell, FN Schrick. Assessment of Semen Quality and Fertility in Young Growing Beef Bulls Exposed to Ergot Alkaloids. Therio 2018 118:219-224.

Cooper-Prado, M. J., I. Rubio, N.M. Long, M.P. Davis, L.J. Spicer, and R.P. Wettemann. Case Study: Effect of body weight gain and bovine somatotropin treatment on calf growth and concentrations of IGF-I and insulin in postpartum beef cows. Professional Animal Scientist. 20189 34:513-521.

Beachler, T, H. Gracz, N. M. Long, L. Borst, D. Morgan, A. Nebel, N. Andrews, J. Koipillai, S. Frable, S. Bembenek-Bailey, K. Ellis, K. Von Dollen, S. Lyle, J. Gadsby, C. S. Bailey. Allantoic metabolites, progesterone and estradiol-17? remain unchanged after infection in an experimental model of equine ascending placentitis. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 2018 73:95-105.

Lewis, L. K., R. E. Ricks, and N. M. Long. Manipulation of neonatal leptin profile via exogenous cortisol in beef calves. Animal 2019 13:9 pp 1982-1985

Maresca, S., S.O. Lopez Valiente, A. M. Rodriguez, L. M. Testa, N. M. Long, G. Quintans and E. Pavan. Effect of protein restriction of beef cows during late gestation on growth and glucose regulation of steer progeny. Dom. Anim. Endocrin. 2019 69:13–18

Maresca, S., S.O. Lopez Valiente, A. M. Rodriguez, L. M. Testa, N. M. Long, G. Quintans and E. Pavan The influence of protein restriction during late gestation on beef offspring growth, carcass characteristic and meat quality. Meat Science 2019 153:103–108

McCarty, K. J., J. L. Washburn, R. K. Taylor, N. M. Long. The effects of early or mid-gestation nutrient restriction on bovine fetal pancreatic development. Dom. Anim. Endocrin. Accepted.

Poole, R. K., T. L. Devine, K. J. Mayberry, J. H. Eisemann, M. H. Poore, N. M. Long, and D. H.Poole. Impact of slick hair trait on physiological and reproductive performance in beef heifers consuming ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 2019 97:1456-1467

Britt, J. L., M. A. Greene, W. C. Bridges Jr., J. L. Klotz, G. E. Aiken, J. G. Andrae, S. L. Pratt, N. M. Long, F. N. Schrick, J. R. Strickland, S. A. Wilbanks, M. F. Miller Jr., B. M. Koch, and S. K. Duckett. Ergot Alkaloid Exposure During Gestation Alters: I. Maternal Characteristics and Placental Development. J. Anim. Sci. 2019 97:1874-1890.

Klotz J. L., J.L. Britt, M.F. Miller Jr., M.A. Snider, G.E. Aiken, N.M. Long, S.L. Pratt, J.G. Andrae, S.K. Duckett. Ergot alkaloid exposure during gestation alters: 2. Uterine and umbilical artery vasoactivity. J. Anim. Sci. 2019 97:1891-1902.

Koch BM, E Pavan, NM. Long, JG. Andrae, and SK. Duckett. Post-Weaning Exposure to High Concentrates versus Forages Alters Marbling Deposition and Lipid Metabolism in Steers. Meat and Muscle Biology 2019 3:244-253

A.N. DeCarlo, K. Jennings, S.L. Pratt, C.R. Burnett, N.M. Long, W.C. Bridges and C. Kojima. Bovine dopamine type-2 receptor SNP has no effect on growth, semen characteristics and prolactin concentrations in beef bulls treated with a dopamine agonist. Animal Repro. Sci. 207:73-82.

C. E. Fehrman, A. D. Blair, J. K. Grubbs, A. R. Taylor, D. W. Brake, N. M. Long and K. R.Underwood. Effects of rumen protected long chain fatty acid supplementation during the finishing phase of beef steers on live performance, carcass characteristics, beef quality, and serum fatty acid profile. Translational Animal Science Accepted.