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Clemson University
college of agriculture, forestry and life sciences clemson university

Robert Powell

George B. Hartzog, Jr. Endowed Professor
Director-Institute for Parks
Forestry and Environmental Conservation Department

Office: 100-4 Sirrine Hall
Phone: 864-784-7974

Vita: Download CV


Educational Background

Ph.D. Forestry and Environmental Studies
Yale University 2005

M.E.M. Environmental Management
Yale University 2001

B.A. Interdisciplinary Studies
Univ. of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 1983

Courses Taught

Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation; Clemson University.
FOR 431/431L; 631/631L: Recreation Resource Planning in Forest Management (2007-present)
FOR 991: Doctoral Research (2009-present)


Robert B. Powell is the George B. Hartzog, Jr. Endowed Professor in Philosophy, Parks, and Environmental Ethics. He has appointments in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management and the Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation at Clemson University. He is also the Director of the Institute for Parks, which is an interdisciplinary institute focused on providing research, training, and outreach to support park and protected area management. With graduate degrees from Yale University, his research and outreach program has taken him to over 40 countries and 6 continents and focuses on environmental education/interpretation, ecotourism, protected areas, and the human dimensions of biodiversity conservation.

Research Interests

Include: environmental education and interpretation, parks and protected area management, ecotourism, outdoor recreation, and biodiversity conservation.

External Grants:
2023 US National Park Service ($30,045). Everhardt Park Break Program: Accessibility Plan for Reconstruction Era National Historical Park Facilities and Programs. PI: R.B. Powell

2022-2026 US National Park Service ($937,213). What leads to better outcomes in National Park Service interpretation? PI: MJ Stern (Virginia Tech). Co-PI: R.B. Powell

2022-2023 Holocaust Museum Houston and Dallas Holocaust and Human Rights Museum ($191,971). Impact of Holocaust Survivor Testimony Interactions through Holographic Imagery. PI: M. Browning. Collaborator: R.B. Powell.

2022-2023 USDA Forest Service ($36,165) El Yunque National Forest: Research to support regional community-based tourism and resilience. PI: R.B. Powell

2021-2023 US National Park Service (199,547.00) Research to evaluate the National Park Service’s Interpretation and Education Planning Processes. PI: R.B. Powell

2020-2022 National Park Foundation ($160,000). An evidence-based learning network for education in the national parks in the COVID era. PI: MJ Stern (Virginia Tech). Co-PIs: R.B. Powell, Frensley, B.T.(UNC-W).

2019-2023 National Science Foundation. Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) Research in Service to Practice Grant ($1.944M). What leads to better outcomes in informal STEM-based environmental education programs for youth? PI: R.B. Powell; Co-PI: M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech), B.T. Frensley (UNC-W), & R. Gagnon (Clemson Univ.)

2019-2021 Pisces Foundation ($150,000). Building a culture of and capacity for evaluation in Environmental Education: 2.0. Principal Investigator: Charlotte Clark, Duke Univ. Collaborator: R.B. Powell.

2018-2020 US National Park Service ($165,345). Research to evaluate visitor characteristics across and within seasons at Joshua Tree National Park. Co-Principal Investigators: Ryan Sharp, Kansas State Univ.; M. Brownlee, Clemson Univ., R.B. Powell.

2017-2018 North Carolina Outward Bound ($5,000). Assessing the Efficacy of the North Carolina Outward Bound Educator Initiative. Principal Investigator: R.B. Powell. Graduate Student: Hunter Holland

2016-2019 Institute for Museum and Library Services. ($487,000) Identifying the drivers of success in educational programs at nature centers and National Parks in the United States. Co-Principal Investigators: M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech) & R.B. Powell

2016-2018 National Science Foundation ($300,000) Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) Pathways Grant.Methods development for systematic investigation of factors driving outcomes in informal STEM environmental education programs. Co-Principal Investigators: R.B. Powell & M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech).

2016-2017 Storer Foundation ($30,000) Assessing the Benefits of Outdoor Recreation. Principal Investigator: R.B. Powell, Collaborators: C. Monz (Utah State) and J. E. Thomsen (Univ. Montana).

2015-2016 Antarctica visitor study in cooperation with Aurora Expeditions. Principal Investigator: R.B. Powell.

2015-2016 Government of Viet Nam, Ministry of Construction. (Consultant) 2030 Plan for the Dong Van Stone Plateau Global Geopark in Ha Giang Province, Viet Nam. Principal Investigator: J. Spencer (Clemson). Collaborator: R.B. Powell.

2014-2015 Wildlife Management Institute ($139,495) Interactive Conservation Planning for the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative. PI: R. Baldwin (Clemson). Collaborator: R.B. Powell.

2013-2015 US National Park Service ($127,913). Goal setting and needs assessment for Interpretation and Education in the National Park Service. Co-principal Investigators: R.B.Powell & B. A. Wright (Clemson).

2014 Antarctica visitor study in cooperation with Aurora Expeditions. Principal Investigator: R.B.Powell.

2008-2013 National Audubon Society. ($506,000) Research for the evaluation and adaptive management of Toyota TogetherGreen. Co-principal Investigators: R.B. Powell, M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech), & N. Ardoin, (Stanford Univ.).

2011-2013 South Florida National Parks Trust ($60,130). Evaluation and research of environmental education at Everglades National Park. Co-principal Investigators: R.B.Powell, G. Ramshaw (Clemson), & M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech).

2009-2013 US National Park Service ($128,688). Assessing the health of Interpretation and Education in the National Park Service. Co-principal Investigators: M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech) & R.B.Powell.

2010-2012 National Parks Conservation Association: Center for Park Management ($219,368). Assessing quality indicators for interpretive programs in the National Park Service. Co-principal Investigators: M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech) & R.B.Powell.

2008-2012 US National Park Service ($24,600). Evaluation of curriculum-based environmental education programs at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Co-principal Investigators: R.B.Powell & M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech).

2008-2011 US National Park Service and Friends of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park ($155,600). Research for sustainable adaptive management of environmental education and outreach at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Co-principal Investigators: M.J. Stern (Virginia Tech) & R.B.Powell.
2007 USAID Sustainable Coastal Tourism in Asia-Sri Lanka: Overcoming governance barriers to integrated coastal, marine protected area, and tourism management. Principal Investigator: R.B. Powell.

2007-10 US National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship & Recreation Management Division ($70,000). Evaluation of wilderness recreational ethics education on public lands. Co-principal Investigators: R.B.Powell & B. A. Wright (Clemson University).


90) Kiewra, L.A., Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Hemby, T. (2023) Is naturalness associated with positive learning outcomes during environmental education field trips? Journal of Environmental Education. DOI: 10.1080/00958964.2022.2157369

89) Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Frensley, B.T. (2023) Which approaches are associated with better outcomes? Evidence from a national study of EE field trip programs. Environmental Education Research, 29(3), 331-356. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2022.2145270

88) Ogletree, S.S., Larson, L.R., Powell, R.B., White, D., & Brownlee, M.T.J. (2022) Urban greenspace linked to lower crime risk across 301 major U.S. cities. Cities 131, 103949. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2022/103949

87) Woods, L.B.*, Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., Frensley, B.T., & Wright, B.A. (2022) Reorienting training in the time of Covid-19 and social justice movements. 21(3), 302-318. Applied Environmental Education and Communication.
DOI: 10.1080/1533015X.2022.2078439

86) Anderson, K., Stern, M.J., & Powell, R.B. (2022) Identifying areas and approaches for improving evaluation processes in environmental education in the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Education. 53(5), 290-303. DOI: 10.1080/00958964.2022.2122918

85) Frensley, B.T., Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Sorice, M.G. (2022) Investigating the links between student basic psychological needs, engagement, and environmental literacy at a residential environmental education center. Journal of Environmental Education, 53:4, 186-198. DOI:10.1080/00958964.2022.2081654

84) Anderson, K., Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., Dare, A.A., & Archibald, T. (2022) Culturally responsive evaluation and its application in environmental education. Evaluation and Program Planning, 92, 102073. DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2022.102073

83) Frensley, B.T., Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Blackwell, M.J. (2022) Exploring the links between teaching approaches and student outcomes at a residential setting. Environmental Education Research, 28(6), 826-844. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2022.2044454

82) Holland, W.H.*, Powell, R.B., Holland, K.K., Garst, B.A., Baldwin, E.D., & Quigley, C.F. (2022) Experiential Wilderness-based Professional Development: Beliefs and Confidence of Participant Educators. Journal of Experiential Education, 45(2) 117-135. DOI: 10.1177/10538259211045385

81) Sabuhoro, E.*, Wright, B.A., Munanura, I. E., Powell, R. B., Hallo, J.C., & Layton P. (2021) Exploring the impact of community conservation enterprises on household livelihoods around two wildlife areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Human Dimensions of Wildlife. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2021.2015487

80) Jamaliah, M. M., Mgonja, J. T., Alazaizeh, M. M., & Powell, R. B. (2021). How does interpretive tour guiding promote tourists’ pro-environmental behaviour? Evidence from Tanzania. Tourism Recreation Research. DOI: 10.1080/02508281.2021.1992953

79) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Frensley, B.T. (2022) How do environmental education field trips for adolescent youth in the United States influence audiences of different grade level, race, and socioeconomic class? Environmental Education Research. 28(2), 197–215. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2021.1990865

78) Stern, M.J., Powell, R. B. & Frensley, B.T. (2022) Interpretation and environmental education research on public lands: Lessons learned and new directions. Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration, 40(1), 228–237. DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-11003

77) Merritt, E., Stern, M.J., Powell, R. B., & Frensley, B.T. (2022) A systematic literature review to identify evidence-based principles to improve online environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 28(5),674-694. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2022.2032610

76) Holland, K.*, Larson, L., Powell, R.B., Holland, W., Allan, L., Nabaala, M., Tome, S., Seno, S., & Nampushi, J. (2022). Impacts of Tourism on Support for Conservation, Local Livelihoods, and Community Resilience around Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 30(11) 2526-2548. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2021.1932927

75) Stern, M.J., & Powell, R. B. (2021) Taking stock of interpretation research: Where have we been and where are we heading? Journal of Interpretation Research. 25(2), 65-87. DOI:10.1177/10925872211023205

74) Pratson, D.F.*, Stern, M.J., & Powell, R.B. (2021) What organizational factors motivate environmental educators to perform their best? Journal of Environmental Education, 52(4), 256-271.

73) Kitheca, B. M.*, Baldwin, E., & Powell, R.B. (2021) Grey to green: Tracing the path to environmental transformation and regeneration of a major industrial city. Cities: The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planning 108. DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2020.102987

72) Holland, W.H.*, Powell, R.B. & Holland, K.K.* (2020) Wilderness-based professional development for teachers: Exploring outcomes and influential programmatic elements. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 12(4), 380-396. DOI:10.18666/JOREL-2020-V12-I4-10271

71) O’Hare, A.,* Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Bowers, E.P. (2020) Influence of educator’s emotional support behaviors on environmental education student outcomes. Journal of Environmental Education Research, 26 (11), 1556-1577. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2020.1800593

70) Stern, M.J. & Powell, R.B. (2020) Field trips and the experiential learning cycle. Journal of Interpretation Research. 25(1), 46–50. DOI:10.1177/1092587220963530

69) Powell, R.B., Miller, Z.D., & Stern, M.J. (In press) The role of education and communications in proactively and adaptively managing visitor use of parks and protected areas. In Visitor Use Management in Parks and Protected Areas: Traditions, Approaches, and Possibilities. Edited by Brownlee, M.T.J., Sharp, R., Miller, Z.D. & Others. Sagamore Venture Publishing, Champaign, IL.

68) Lee, H.*, Stern, M.J., & Powell, R.B. (2020) Assessing the influence of preparation and follow-up on student outcomes associated with environmental education field trips. Journal of Environmental Education Research, 26 (7), 989–1007. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2020.1765991

67) Dale, R.G.*, Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Garst, B.A. (2020) Influence of the natural setting on environmental education student outcomes. Journal of Environmental Education Research 26(5), 613-631. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2020.1738346

66) Sabuhoro, E.*, Wright, B.A,. Powell, R.B., Hallo, J.C., Layton, P., & Munanura, I.E. (2020) Perceptions and behaviors of indigenous populations regarding illegal use of park resources in the Greater Virunga Transboundary Landscape. Environmental Management 65, 410-419. DOI:10.1007/s00267-020-01254-z

65) Frensley, B.T.*, Stern, M.J., & Powell, R.B. (2020) Does student enthusiasm equal learning? The mismatch between observed and self-reported student engagement and environmental literacy outcomes in a residential setting. Journal of Environmental Education 51(6), 449-461. DOI:10.1080/00958964.2020.1727404

64) Jamaliah, M.M.*, Powell, R.B., & Sirima, A.* (2021) Climate change adaptation and implementation barriers: A qualitative exploration of managers of Dana Biosphere Reserve-ecotourism system. Journal of Ecotourism, 20(1), 18-34. DOI:10.1080/14724049.2020.1746320

63) Poncet, S., Wolfaardt, A.C., Barbraud, C., Arriegas, R.A., Black, A., Powell, R.B. & Phillips, R.A. (2020) The distribution, abundance, status and global importance of giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) breeding at South Georgia. Polar Biology 43, 17–34. DOI:10.1007/s00300-019-02608-y

62) Citarella, M.M.*, Hallo, J.C., Fefer, J.P., Brownlee, M.T.J., Powell, R.B. & Dudley, K. (2019) Taking the plunge: Enhancing the visitor experience in waterfall-based state parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 37(3), 70-88. DOI:10.18666/JPRA-2019-9149

61) Ogletree, S.S.*, Powell, R.B., Baldwin, R. F. & Leonard, P.B. (2019) A framework for mapping cultural resources in landscape conservation planning. Conservation Science and Practice, 1(6). DOI:10.1111/csp2.41

60) Clark, M., Wilkins, E., Dagan, D.T., Powell, R.B., Sharp, R.L., & Hillis, V. (2019) Bringing forecasting into the future: Using Google to predict visitation in U.S. National Parks. Environmental Management, 243, 88-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.05.006

59) Powell, R.B., Stern, M. J., Frensley, B.T., & Moore, D. (2019) Identifying and developing crosscutting environmental education outcomes for adolescents in the 21st Century (EE21). Environmental Education Research, 25(9), 1281-1299. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2019.1607259

58) Miller, Z.D.*, Freimund, W.A., Metcalf, E.C., Nickerson, N.P. & Powell, R.B. (2019) Merging elaboration and the theory of planned behavior to understand bear spray behavior of day hikers in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Environmental Management, 63, 366–378. DOI:10.1007/s00267-019-01139-w

57) Holland, K.E.*, Larsen, L., & Powell, R.B. (2018) Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: A systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. PlosOne 13(9):e0203877.

56) Holland, W.H.*, Powell, R.B., Thomsen, J.M., and Monz, C.A. (2018) A systematic review of the psychological, social, and educational outcomes associated with participation in wildland recreational activities. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership,10(3), 197-225. DOI:10.18666/JOREL-2018-V10-I3-8382

55) Munanura, I.E.*, Backman, K.F., Hallo, J.C, Powell, R.B., & Sabuhoro, E. (2018) Understanding the relationship between livelihood constraints of poor forest-adjacent residents and illegal forest use at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Conservation and Society, 16(3), 291-304. DOI:10.4103/cs.cs_14_83

54) Miller, Z.D.*, Freimund, W., & Powell, R.B. (2018) Measuring elaboration and evaluating its influence on behavioral intentions. Journal of Interpretation Research, 23(1), 27-44.

53) Munanura, I.E.*, Backman, K.F., Sabuhoro, E., Powell, R.B., & Hallo, J.C. (2018) The perceived forms and drivers of forest dependence at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Environmental Sociology, 4(3), 343-357. DOI: 10.1080/23251042.2017.1414661

52) Thomsen, J.M., Powell, R.B., and Monz, C.A. (2018) A systematic review of the physical and mental health benefits of wildland recreation. Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration, 36(1), 123-148. DOI:10.18666/JPRA-2018-V36-I1-8095

51) Jamaliah, M.M.* & Powell, R.B. (2019) Integrated vulnerability assessment of ecotourism to climate change in the Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(14), 1705-1722. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2017.1401982

50) Morris, D.M.*, Pilcher, J.J., & Powell, R.B. (2017). Task dependent cold stress during expeditions in Antarctic environments. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76(1),1379306. DOI:10.1080/22423982.2017.1379306

49) Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Frensley, B.T.* (2020) Identifying outcomes for environmental education at national parks. In Thompson, J.L. & Houseal, A.K. (editors). America’s largest classrooms: What we learn from our national parks (pp-245-258). Univ. of CA Press, Oakland, CA.

48) Powell, R.B., Depper, G.L.*, & Wright, B.A. (2018) Interpretation training needs in the 21st Century: A needs assessment of interpreters in the National Park Service, Journal of Interpretation Research. 22(2),17-34. DOI: 10.1177/109258721702200203

47) Jamaliah, M.M.* & Powell, R.B. (2018) Ecotourism resilience to climate change in the Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(4), 519-536. DOI:10.1080/09669582.2017.1360893

46) Powell, R. B., Vezeau, S.L.*, Stern, M.J., Moore, D.D., & Wright, B.A. (2018) Does interpretation influence elaboration and environmental behaviors? Journal of Environmental Education Research, 24(6), 875-888. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2017.1339302

45) Powell, R.B., Green, T., Holladay, P.J., Krafte, K.*, Duda, M.*, Nguyen, M.T., Spencer, J.H., & Das, P. (2018) Examining community resilience to assist in sustainable tourism development planning in Dong Van Karst Plateau Geopark, Viet Nam. Tourism Planning and Development,15(4), 436-457. DOI:10:1080/21568316.2017.1338202

44) Stern, M.J., Frensley, B.*, Powell, R.B., & Ardoin, N.M. (2018) What difference do role models make? Investigating outcomes at a residential environmental education center. Environmental Education Research, 24(6), 818-830. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2017.1313391

43) Holladay, P.J.*, & Powell, R.B. (2016) Social-ecological resilience and stakeholders: A qualitative inquiry into community-based tourism in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Caribbean Studies, 44(1), 3-28. DOI: 10.1353/crb.2016.0000

42) Munanura, I.E.*, Backman, K.F., Hallo, J, & Powell, R.B. (2016) Perceptions of tourism revenue sharing impacts on Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda: A sustainable livelihoods framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12, 1709-1726. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2016.1145228

41) Stern, M.J., Ardoin, N.M., & Powell, R.B. (2016) Exploring the effectiveness of community outreach strategies: The case of the Audubon Toyota TogetherGreen program. Society and Natural Resources, 30(1) 95-111.

40) Vezeau, S.L., Powell, R. B., Stern, M.J., Moore, D., & Wright, B.A. (2017) Development and validation of two scales for measuring elaboration and behaviors associated with stewardship in children. Environmental Education Research, 23(2) 192-213. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2015.1121377

39) Sgalitzer, H.A.*, Brownlee, M.T.J., Bricker, K.S., & Powell, R.B. (2016) Modelling travelers’ philanthropy: Tourists’ motivations to donate at Sweetwater Chimpanzee Sanctuary. Journal of Ecotourism, 15(1), 1-20. DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2015.1117091

38) Skibins, J.C.*, Powell, R.B., & Hallo, J.C. (2016) Lucky 13: Conservation implications of broadening ‘Big 5’ flagship species recognition in East Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(7), 1024-1040. DOI:10.1080/09669582.2015.1101126

37) Powell, R.B., Ramshaw, G.P., Ogletree, S.S.*, & Krafte, K.* (2016) Can heritage resources highlight changes to the natural environment caused by climate change? Evidence from the Antarctic tourism experience. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11(1), 71-87. DOI:10.1080/1743873X.2015.1082571

36) Depper, G.L.*, Vigil, D.C., Powell, R.B. & Wright, B.A. (2015-2016) Resource protection, visitor safety, and employee safety: How prepared is the National Park Service? Park Science, 32(2) 18-24.

35) Brownlee, M.T.J.*, Hallo, J.C., Jodice, L.W., Moore, D.D., Powell, R.B., & Wright, B.A. (2015) Place attachment and marine recreationists’ attitudes towards offshore wind energy development. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(2), 263-284. DOI:10.1080/00222216.2015.11950360

34) Munanura, I.E.*, Backman, K., Moore, D., Hallo, J., & Powell, R.B. (2014) Household poverty dimensions influencing forest dependence at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda: An application of the sustainable livelihoods framework. Natural Resources, 5(16), 1031.

33) Miller, Z.D.*, Hallo, J.C., Sharp, J.L., Powell, R.B., & Lanham, J.D. (2014) Birding by ear: A study of recreational specialization and soundscape preference. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 19(6), 498-511. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2014.921845

32) Vagias, W.M.*, Powell, R.B., Moore, D.D., & Wright, B.A. (2014) Predicting behavioral intentions to comply with recommended Leave No Trace practices. Leisure Sciences, 38(5), 439-445. DOI:10.1080/01490400.2014.912168

31) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Hill, D. (2014) Environmental education research in the new millennium: What do we measure and what have we learned? Environmental Education Research, 20(5), 581-611. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2013.838749

30) Brownlee, M.T.J.*, Hallo, J.C., Moore, D.D., Powell, R.B., & Wright, B.A. (2014) Attitudes toward water conservation: The influence of site specific factors and beliefs in climate change. Society and Natural Resources, 27(9), 964-982. DOI:10.1080/08941920.2014.929768

29) Thomsen, J.M.*, Powell, R.B., & Allen, D. (2013) What is the value and implications of viewing park resources as health resources? Park Science, 30(2), 30-36.

28) Stern, M.J. & Powell, R.B. (2013) What leads to better visitor outcomes in live interpretation? Journal of Interpretation Research, 18(2), 9-44. DOI: 10.1177/109258721301800202

27) Powell, R.B. & Stern, M.J. (2013) Is it the program or the interpreter? Modeling the influence of program characteristics and interpreter attributes on visitor outcomes. Journal of Interpretation Research, 18(2), 45-60. DOI: 10.1177/109258721301800203

26) Powell, R.B. & Stern, M.J. (2013) Speculating on the role of context in the outcomes of interpretive programs. Journal of Interpretation Research, 18(2), 61-78. DOI: 10.1177/109258721301800204

25) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., McLean, K.D.*, Martin, E.*, Thomsen, J.M.* & Mutchler, B.A.* (2013) The difference between good enough and great: Bringing interpretive best practices to life. Journal of Interpretation Research, 18(2), 79-100. DOI: 10.1177/109258721301800205

24) Skibins, J.C.,* & Powell, R.B. (2013) Conservation Caring: Measuring the influence of zoo visitors’ connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors. Zoo Biology, 32(5), 528-540. DOI:10.1002/zoo.21086

23) Brownlee, M. T. J.*, Hallo, J. C., Wright, B. A., Moore, D., & Powell, R. B. (2013). Visiting a climate-influenced National Park: The stability of climate change perceptions. Environmental Management, 52(5), 1132-1148. DOI:10.1007/s00267-013-0153-2

22) Holladay, P.J.* & Powell, R.B. (2013) Resident perceptions of social-ecological resilience and the sustainability of community-based tourism development in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(8), 1188-1211.

21) Skibins, J.C.*, Powell, R.B. & Hallo, J.C. (2013) Charisma and conservation: Charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22(4), 959-982.

20) Brownlee, M.T.J.*, Powell, R. B., & Hallo, J. (2013) A review of the foundational processes that influence beliefs in climate change: Opportunities for environmental education research. Environmental Education Research, 19(1), 1-20. DOI:10.1080/13504622.2012.683389

19) Skibins, J.C.*, Powell, R.B., & Stern, M.J. (2012) Exploring empirical support for interpretation’s best practices. Journal of Interpretation Research, 17(1), 25-44.

18) Vagias, W.M.*, Powell, R.B, Moore, D, & Wright, B.A. (2012) Development, psychometric qualities, and cross-validation of the Leave No Trace attitudinal inventory and measure (LNT AIM). Journal of Leisure Research, 44(2), 234-256. DOI:10.1080/00222216.2012.11950263

17) Van Riper, C., Powell, R. B., Machlis, G., Wagtendonk, J., van Riper, C.J.*,von Ruschkowski, E., Schwarzbach, S. & Galipeau, R. (2012) Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits to managers of park and protected areas. George Wright Society Forum, 29(2), 216-226.

16) Stern, M.J., Wright, M.E.*, & Powell, R.B. (2012) Motivating school participation in National Park Service education programs. Journal of Visitor Studies, 15(1), 28-47.

15) Powell, R.B., Brownlee, M.T.J.*, Kellert, S. R. & Ham, S.H. (2012) From awe to satisfaction: Immediate affective responses to the Antarctic tourism experience. Polar Record, 48(2), 145-156.

14) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B. & Hockett, K.S. (2011) Why do they come? Motivations and barriers to interpretive program attendance at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of Interpretation Research, 16(2), 35-52.

13) Baldwin, R.F., Powell, R.B., & Kellert, S.R. (2011) Habitat as architecture for sustainability: Integrating conservation planning and human health. Ambio, 40(3), 322-327.

12) Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., Krohn, B.* & Ardoin, N. (2011) Development and validation of scales to measure environmental responsibility, attitudes toward school, and character development. Environmental Education Research, 17(1), 91-111. DOI:10.1080/13504621003692891

11) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Ardoin, N.M. (2011) Evaluating a constructivist and culturally responsive approach to environmental education for diverse audiences. Journal of Environmental Education, 42(2),109-122.

10) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Cook, C. (2010-2011) The benefits of live interpretive programs to Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Park Science, 27(3), 56-60.

9) Vagias, W.* & Powell, R.B. (2010) Backcountry visitors’ Leave No Trace attitudes. International Journal of Wilderness, 16(3), 21-27.

8) Powell, R. B. (2010) Developing institutions to overcome governance barriers to ecoregional conservation. In S.C. Trombulak & R.F. Baldwin (Eds.), Landscape-scale Conservation Planning (pp. 53-67). New York: Springer.

7) Powell, R. B & Vagias, W.* (2010) Benefits of stakeholder involvement in the development of social science research. Park Science, 27(1), 46-49.

6) Powell, R.B., Cushnir, A., & Peiris, P. (2009) Overcoming governance barriers to integrated coastal zone, marine protected area, and sustainable tourism management in Sri Lanka. Coastal Management, 37(6), 633-655.

5) Powell, R.B., Kellert, S. R., & Ham, S.H. (2009) Interactional theory and the sustainable nature-based tourism experience. Society and Natural Resources, 22(8), 761-776.

4) Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Ardoin, N. (2008) What difference does it make? Assessing student outcomes of participation in a residential environmental education program. Journal of Environmental Education, 39(4), 31-43.

3) Powell, R.B. & Ham, S.H. (2008) Can ecotourism interpretation really lead to pro-conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? Evidence from the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(4), 467-489. DOI:10.1080/09669580802154223

2) Powell, R.B., Kellert, S. R., & Ham, S.H. (2008) Antarctic tourists: Ambassadors or consumers? Polar Record, 44(230), 233-241.

1) Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., & Ardoin, N. (2006) A sustainable evaluation framework and its application. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 5(4), 231-241.
*Graduate Student


Institute for Parks
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